Limits...
Variation in lithic technological strategies among the Neanderthals of Gibraltar.

Shipton C, Clarkson C, Bernal MA, Boivin N, Finlayson C, Finlayson G, Fa D, Pacheco FG, Petraglia M - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: Some of the observed patterns in technology are statistically tested including raw material selection, platform preparation, and the use of formal and expedient technological schemas.The main parameters of technological variation are examined through detailed analysis of the Gibraltar cores and comparison with samples from the classic Mousterian sites of Le Moustier and Tabun C.We attribute this change to a reduction in residential mobility as the climate deteriorated during Marine Isotope Stage 3 and the Neanderthal population contracted into a refugium.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Social Science, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. c.shipton@uq.edu.au

ABSTRACT
THE EVIDENCE FOR NEANDERTHAL LITHIC TECHNOLOGY IS REVIEWED AND SUMMARIZED FOR FOUR CAVES ON THE ROCK OF GIBRALTAR: Vanguard, Beefsteak, Ibex and Gorham's. Some of the observed patterns in technology are statistically tested including raw material selection, platform preparation, and the use of formal and expedient technological schemas. The main parameters of technological variation are examined through detailed analysis of the Gibraltar cores and comparison with samples from the classic Mousterian sites of Le Moustier and Tabun C. The Gibraltar Mousterian, including the youngest assemblage from Layer IV of Gorham's Cave, spans the typical Middle Palaeolithic range of variation from radial Levallois to unidirectional and multi-platform flaking schemas, with characteristic emphasis on the former. A diachronic pattern of change in the Gorham's Cave sequence is documented, with the younger assemblages utilising more localized raw material and less formal flaking procedures. We attribute this change to a reduction in residential mobility as the climate deteriorated during Marine Isotope Stage 3 and the Neanderthal population contracted into a refugium.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Two Levallois cores in red chert from Ibex Cave.A: recurrent bidirectional Levallois IBE 046. B: recurrent centripetal Levallois, IBE 053.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3675147&req=5

pone-0065185-g002: Two Levallois cores in red chert from Ibex Cave.A: recurrent bidirectional Levallois IBE 046. B: recurrent centripetal Levallois, IBE 053.

Mentions: Ibex cave is located high on the eastern side of Gibraltar about halfway along the length of The Rock. Tooth enamel from a layer underlying Mousterian artefacts was dated using Electron Spin Resonance to 37 kya (early uptake (EU)) or 49 kya (linear uptake (LU)) [28]. Out of a total of 96 lithics from Ibex cave, 89 are of chert and the majority of these are dark red in colour. The remaining artefacts are six limestone flakes (that could have resulted from roof fall), and a hammerstone [11]. Three cores of the red chert were found in the cave, all of which may be classified as recurrent Levallois (Figure 2). Two of the cores were flaked centripetally and have refitting preferential flakes, while the third core was flaked bidirectionally. The cores are all between 4 and 6 cm in length and all exhibit platform faceting and overhang removal. There are no retouched flakes from Ibex Cave, while the presence of many cortical flakes (22%), suggests the complete reduction sequence of the red chert pebbles may have taken place here. The low diversity in raw material, the presence of refits, the high proportion of cortical flakes, the presence of 13 flaked pieces less than 5 mm long, and the similarity in the technology of the cores all suggest the lithic artefacts at Ibex represent a single occupation episode.


Variation in lithic technological strategies among the Neanderthals of Gibraltar.

Shipton C, Clarkson C, Bernal MA, Boivin N, Finlayson C, Finlayson G, Fa D, Pacheco FG, Petraglia M - PLoS ONE (2013)

Two Levallois cores in red chert from Ibex Cave.A: recurrent bidirectional Levallois IBE 046. B: recurrent centripetal Levallois, IBE 053.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3675147&req=5

pone-0065185-g002: Two Levallois cores in red chert from Ibex Cave.A: recurrent bidirectional Levallois IBE 046. B: recurrent centripetal Levallois, IBE 053.
Mentions: Ibex cave is located high on the eastern side of Gibraltar about halfway along the length of The Rock. Tooth enamel from a layer underlying Mousterian artefacts was dated using Electron Spin Resonance to 37 kya (early uptake (EU)) or 49 kya (linear uptake (LU)) [28]. Out of a total of 96 lithics from Ibex cave, 89 are of chert and the majority of these are dark red in colour. The remaining artefacts are six limestone flakes (that could have resulted from roof fall), and a hammerstone [11]. Three cores of the red chert were found in the cave, all of which may be classified as recurrent Levallois (Figure 2). Two of the cores were flaked centripetally and have refitting preferential flakes, while the third core was flaked bidirectionally. The cores are all between 4 and 6 cm in length and all exhibit platform faceting and overhang removal. There are no retouched flakes from Ibex Cave, while the presence of many cortical flakes (22%), suggests the complete reduction sequence of the red chert pebbles may have taken place here. The low diversity in raw material, the presence of refits, the high proportion of cortical flakes, the presence of 13 flaked pieces less than 5 mm long, and the similarity in the technology of the cores all suggest the lithic artefacts at Ibex represent a single occupation episode.

Bottom Line: Some of the observed patterns in technology are statistically tested including raw material selection, platform preparation, and the use of formal and expedient technological schemas.The main parameters of technological variation are examined through detailed analysis of the Gibraltar cores and comparison with samples from the classic Mousterian sites of Le Moustier and Tabun C.We attribute this change to a reduction in residential mobility as the climate deteriorated during Marine Isotope Stage 3 and the Neanderthal population contracted into a refugium.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Social Science, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. c.shipton@uq.edu.au

ABSTRACT
THE EVIDENCE FOR NEANDERTHAL LITHIC TECHNOLOGY IS REVIEWED AND SUMMARIZED FOR FOUR CAVES ON THE ROCK OF GIBRALTAR: Vanguard, Beefsteak, Ibex and Gorham's. Some of the observed patterns in technology are statistically tested including raw material selection, platform preparation, and the use of formal and expedient technological schemas. The main parameters of technological variation are examined through detailed analysis of the Gibraltar cores and comparison with samples from the classic Mousterian sites of Le Moustier and Tabun C. The Gibraltar Mousterian, including the youngest assemblage from Layer IV of Gorham's Cave, spans the typical Middle Palaeolithic range of variation from radial Levallois to unidirectional and multi-platform flaking schemas, with characteristic emphasis on the former. A diachronic pattern of change in the Gorham's Cave sequence is documented, with the younger assemblages utilising more localized raw material and less formal flaking procedures. We attribute this change to a reduction in residential mobility as the climate deteriorated during Marine Isotope Stage 3 and the Neanderthal population contracted into a refugium.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus