Limits...
Agency modulates the lateral and medial prefrontal cortex responses in belief-based decision making.

Xue G, He Q, Lu ZL, Levin IP, Dong Q, Bechara A - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: However, the neural mechanisms underlying the "agency" effect on belief-based decisions are not well understood.Furthermore, subjects with high external attribution of negative events were more affected by agency at the behavioral and neural levels.These results suggest that the prefrontal decision-making system can be modulated by abstract beliefs, and are thus vulnerable to factors such as false agency and attribution.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China. guixue@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Many real-life decisions in complex and changing environments are guided by the decision maker's beliefs, such as her perceived control over decision outcomes (i.e., agency), leading to phenomena like the "illusion of control". However, the neural mechanisms underlying the "agency" effect on belief-based decisions are not well understood. Using functional imaging and a card guessing game, we revealed that the agency manipulation (i.e., either asking the subjects (SG) or the computer (CG) to guess the location of the winning card) not only affected the size of subjects' bets, but also their "world model" regarding the outcome dependency. Functional imaging results revealed that the decision-related activation in the lateral and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) was significantly modulated by agency and previous outcome. Specifically, these PFC regions showed stronger activation when subjects made decisions after losses than after wins under the CG condition, but the pattern was reversed under the SG condition. Furthermore, subjects with high external attribution of negative events were more affected by agency at the behavioral and neural levels. These results suggest that the prefrontal decision-making system can be modulated by abstract beliefs, and are thus vulnerable to factors such as false agency and attribution.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Cross-subject correlation results.(A) The rACC that showed negative correlation between bet size changes and neural activation change as a function of prior outcome was overlaid on an axial slice of the group mean structural image. For display purposes, the activation map was shown at Z>2.3. (B) Scatter plot of the correlation. Please note the scatter plot is only used to check possible outliers. The correlation coefficient should be treated cautiously due to the double-dipping issue.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3675124&req=5

pone-0065274-g004: Cross-subject correlation results.(A) The rACC that showed negative correlation between bet size changes and neural activation change as a function of prior outcome was overlaid on an axial slice of the group mean structural image. For display purposes, the activation map was shown at Z>2.3. (B) Scatter plot of the correlation. Please note the scatter plot is only used to check possible outliers. The correlation coefficient should be treated cautiously due to the double-dipping issue.

Mentions: We further correlated the bet size change as a function of prior outcome with the corresponding neural changes in the rACC. We found for the CG condition where the bet size was significantly modulated by prior outcome, subjects who showed greater neural activation increases during decisions in the rACC (x/y/z: −14,36, 22, Z = 3.60) showed smaller increases in bet size (Figure 4), consistent with a previous observation that the rACC conveys a warning signal to reduce risk taking [38].


Agency modulates the lateral and medial prefrontal cortex responses in belief-based decision making.

Xue G, He Q, Lu ZL, Levin IP, Dong Q, Bechara A - PLoS ONE (2013)

Cross-subject correlation results.(A) The rACC that showed negative correlation between bet size changes and neural activation change as a function of prior outcome was overlaid on an axial slice of the group mean structural image. For display purposes, the activation map was shown at Z>2.3. (B) Scatter plot of the correlation. Please note the scatter plot is only used to check possible outliers. The correlation coefficient should be treated cautiously due to the double-dipping issue.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3675124&req=5

pone-0065274-g004: Cross-subject correlation results.(A) The rACC that showed negative correlation between bet size changes and neural activation change as a function of prior outcome was overlaid on an axial slice of the group mean structural image. For display purposes, the activation map was shown at Z>2.3. (B) Scatter plot of the correlation. Please note the scatter plot is only used to check possible outliers. The correlation coefficient should be treated cautiously due to the double-dipping issue.
Mentions: We further correlated the bet size change as a function of prior outcome with the corresponding neural changes in the rACC. We found for the CG condition where the bet size was significantly modulated by prior outcome, subjects who showed greater neural activation increases during decisions in the rACC (x/y/z: −14,36, 22, Z = 3.60) showed smaller increases in bet size (Figure 4), consistent with a previous observation that the rACC conveys a warning signal to reduce risk taking [38].

Bottom Line: However, the neural mechanisms underlying the "agency" effect on belief-based decisions are not well understood.Furthermore, subjects with high external attribution of negative events were more affected by agency at the behavioral and neural levels.These results suggest that the prefrontal decision-making system can be modulated by abstract beliefs, and are thus vulnerable to factors such as false agency and attribution.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China. guixue@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Many real-life decisions in complex and changing environments are guided by the decision maker's beliefs, such as her perceived control over decision outcomes (i.e., agency), leading to phenomena like the "illusion of control". However, the neural mechanisms underlying the "agency" effect on belief-based decisions are not well understood. Using functional imaging and a card guessing game, we revealed that the agency manipulation (i.e., either asking the subjects (SG) or the computer (CG) to guess the location of the winning card) not only affected the size of subjects' bets, but also their "world model" regarding the outcome dependency. Functional imaging results revealed that the decision-related activation in the lateral and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) was significantly modulated by agency and previous outcome. Specifically, these PFC regions showed stronger activation when subjects made decisions after losses than after wins under the CG condition, but the pattern was reversed under the SG condition. Furthermore, subjects with high external attribution of negative events were more affected by agency at the behavioral and neural levels. These results suggest that the prefrontal decision-making system can be modulated by abstract beliefs, and are thus vulnerable to factors such as false agency and attribution.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus