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Camera sensor arrangement for crop/weed detection accuracy in agronomic images.

Romeo J, Guerrero JM, Montalvo M, Emmi L, Guijarro M, Gonzalez-de-Santos P, Pajares G - Sensors (Basel) (2013)

Bottom Line: In Precision Agriculture, images coming from camera-based sensors are commonly used for weed identification and crop line detection, either to apply specific treatments or for vehicle guidance purposes.Accuracy of identification and detection is an important issue to be addressed in image processing.There are two main types of parameters affecting the accuracy of the images, namely: (a) extrinsic, related to the sensor's positioning in the tractor; (b) intrinsic, related to the sensor specifications, such as CCD resolution, focal length or iris aperture, among others.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Software Engineering and Artificial Intelligence, Faculty of Informatics, Complutense University, Madrid 28040, Spain. jromeo99@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT
In Precision Agriculture, images coming from camera-based sensors are commonly used for weed identification and crop line detection, either to apply specific treatments or for vehicle guidance purposes. Accuracy of identification and detection is an important issue to be addressed in image processing. There are two main types of parameters affecting the accuracy of the images, namely: (a) extrinsic, related to the sensor's positioning in the tractor; (b) intrinsic, related to the sensor specifications, such as CCD resolution, focal length or iris aperture, among others. Moreover, in agricultural applications, the uncontrolled illumination, existing in outdoor environments, is also an important factor affecting the image accuracy. This paper is exclusively focused on two main issues, always with the goal to achieve the highest image accuracy in Precision Agriculture applications, making the following two main contributions: (a) camera sensor arrangement, to adjust extrinsic parameters and (b) design of strategies for controlling the adverse illumination effects.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Camera-based sensor arrangement with a ROI in front of the tractor: (a) near the mass center of the tractor with referential coordinate systems; (b) Zenithal position.
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f2-sensors-13-04348: Camera-based sensor arrangement with a ROI in front of the tractor: (a) near the mass center of the tractor with referential coordinate systems; (b) Zenithal position.

Mentions: The CCD is a Kodak KAI 04050M/C sensor with a Bayer color filter with GR pattern; resolution of 2,336 × 1,752 pixels and 5.5 × 5.5 μm pixel-size. This device is part of the SVS4050CFLGEA model [20] which is robust enough and very suitable for agricultural applications. This device offers several externally controlled possibilities: (a) exposure time, which determines the time taken to capture the image; (b) Red, Green and Blue gains, where a value can be set for each channel, including gains auto-calculation; (c) definition of specific Regions Of Interest (ROIs); (d) information about the operating temperature. This Gigabit Ethernet device connected to a cRIO-9082 with dual-core controller, 1.33 GHz and LX150 FPGA running under LabView 2011 from National Instruments [21] is robust enough and specifically designed for real-time processing, so both features are very suitable for our agricultural application. Because the application occurs in harsh environments (containing dust, drops of liquid from sprayers, etc.) it is encapsulated in a housing with IP65 protection and internally equipped with an automatic fan which is triggered if the temperature surpasses 50 °C; this housing is displayed in Figure 2(a) indicated by the label camera-based sensor.


Camera sensor arrangement for crop/weed detection accuracy in agronomic images.

Romeo J, Guerrero JM, Montalvo M, Emmi L, Guijarro M, Gonzalez-de-Santos P, Pajares G - Sensors (Basel) (2013)

Camera-based sensor arrangement with a ROI in front of the tractor: (a) near the mass center of the tractor with referential coordinate systems; (b) Zenithal position.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3673087&req=5

f2-sensors-13-04348: Camera-based sensor arrangement with a ROI in front of the tractor: (a) near the mass center of the tractor with referential coordinate systems; (b) Zenithal position.
Mentions: The CCD is a Kodak KAI 04050M/C sensor with a Bayer color filter with GR pattern; resolution of 2,336 × 1,752 pixels and 5.5 × 5.5 μm pixel-size. This device is part of the SVS4050CFLGEA model [20] which is robust enough and very suitable for agricultural applications. This device offers several externally controlled possibilities: (a) exposure time, which determines the time taken to capture the image; (b) Red, Green and Blue gains, where a value can be set for each channel, including gains auto-calculation; (c) definition of specific Regions Of Interest (ROIs); (d) information about the operating temperature. This Gigabit Ethernet device connected to a cRIO-9082 with dual-core controller, 1.33 GHz and LX150 FPGA running under LabView 2011 from National Instruments [21] is robust enough and specifically designed for real-time processing, so both features are very suitable for our agricultural application. Because the application occurs in harsh environments (containing dust, drops of liquid from sprayers, etc.) it is encapsulated in a housing with IP65 protection and internally equipped with an automatic fan which is triggered if the temperature surpasses 50 °C; this housing is displayed in Figure 2(a) indicated by the label camera-based sensor.

Bottom Line: In Precision Agriculture, images coming from camera-based sensors are commonly used for weed identification and crop line detection, either to apply specific treatments or for vehicle guidance purposes.Accuracy of identification and detection is an important issue to be addressed in image processing.There are two main types of parameters affecting the accuracy of the images, namely: (a) extrinsic, related to the sensor's positioning in the tractor; (b) intrinsic, related to the sensor specifications, such as CCD resolution, focal length or iris aperture, among others.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Software Engineering and Artificial Intelligence, Faculty of Informatics, Complutense University, Madrid 28040, Spain. jromeo99@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT
In Precision Agriculture, images coming from camera-based sensors are commonly used for weed identification and crop line detection, either to apply specific treatments or for vehicle guidance purposes. Accuracy of identification and detection is an important issue to be addressed in image processing. There are two main types of parameters affecting the accuracy of the images, namely: (a) extrinsic, related to the sensor's positioning in the tractor; (b) intrinsic, related to the sensor specifications, such as CCD resolution, focal length or iris aperture, among others. Moreover, in agricultural applications, the uncontrolled illumination, existing in outdoor environments, is also an important factor affecting the image accuracy. This paper is exclusively focused on two main issues, always with the goal to achieve the highest image accuracy in Precision Agriculture applications, making the following two main contributions: (a) camera sensor arrangement, to adjust extrinsic parameters and (b) design of strategies for controlling the adverse illumination effects.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus