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Optical flow and driver's kinematics analysis for state of alert sensing.

Jiménez-Pinto J, Torres-Torriti M - Sensors (Basel) (2013)

Bottom Line: Our experiments show the effectiveness of the approach with a correct eyes detection rate of 99.41%, on average.The results obtained with the proposed approach in an experiment involving fifteen persons under different levels of sleep deprivation also confirm the discriminability of the fatigue levels.In addition to the measurement of fatigue and drowsiness, the pose tracking capability of the proposed approach has potential applications in distraction assessment and alerting of machine operators.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Catòlica de Chile, Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Casilla 306-22, Santiago, Chile. jejimenp@puc.cl

ABSTRACT
Road accident statistics from different countries show that a significant number of accidents occur due to driver's fatigue and lack of awareness to traffic conditions. In particular, about 60% of the accidents in which long haul truck and bus drivers are involved are attributed to drowsiness and fatigue. It is thus fundamental to improve non-invasive systems for sensing a driver's state of alert. One of the main challenges to correctly resolve the state of alert is measuring the percentage of eyelid closure over time (PERCLOS), despite the driver's head and body movements. In this paper, we propose a technique that involves optical flow and driver's kinematics analysis to improve the robustness of the driver's alert state measurement under pose changes using a single camera with near-infrared illumination. The proposed approach infers and keeps track of the driver's pose in 3D space in order to ensure that eyes can be located correctly, even after periods of partial occlusion, for example, when the driver stares away from the camera. Our experiments show the effectiveness of the approach with a correct eyes detection rate of 99.41%, on average. The results obtained with the proposed approach in an experiment involving fifteen persons under different levels of sleep deprivation also confirm the discriminability of the fatigue levels. In addition to the measurement of fatigue and drowsiness, the pose tracking capability of the proposed approach has potential applications in distraction assessment and alerting of machine operators.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Dimensions and view of the driving seat and steering wheel structure.
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f11-sensors-13-04225: Dimensions and view of the driving seat and steering wheel structure.

Mentions: The layout of the simulator is illustrated in Figure 9, which shows the semicircular projection screen of 1.8 m radius, the projector located 5.8 m from the projection screen and 2.7 m above the ground, to avoid the car seat structure from casting shadows on the screen. The rear part of the seat structure is 0.9 m away from the center of the semicircular projection screen. This location ensures that the driver field of view subtends the whole projection screen and not just the central portion and also ensures that the driver perceives the virtual world with a scale equivalent to that perceived from a real vehicle, as shown in Figure 10 for one of the driving experiments. From the seating position of the driver in Figure 10, the pavement below the seat and the shadow cast on the screen are not visible. This was possible locating the projector above the screen level and adjusting the keystone effect. The driving seat and its dimensions are shown in Figure 11.


Optical flow and driver's kinematics analysis for state of alert sensing.

Jiménez-Pinto J, Torres-Torriti M - Sensors (Basel) (2013)

Dimensions and view of the driving seat and steering wheel structure.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3673081&req=5

f11-sensors-13-04225: Dimensions and view of the driving seat and steering wheel structure.
Mentions: The layout of the simulator is illustrated in Figure 9, which shows the semicircular projection screen of 1.8 m radius, the projector located 5.8 m from the projection screen and 2.7 m above the ground, to avoid the car seat structure from casting shadows on the screen. The rear part of the seat structure is 0.9 m away from the center of the semicircular projection screen. This location ensures that the driver field of view subtends the whole projection screen and not just the central portion and also ensures that the driver perceives the virtual world with a scale equivalent to that perceived from a real vehicle, as shown in Figure 10 for one of the driving experiments. From the seating position of the driver in Figure 10, the pavement below the seat and the shadow cast on the screen are not visible. This was possible locating the projector above the screen level and adjusting the keystone effect. The driving seat and its dimensions are shown in Figure 11.

Bottom Line: Our experiments show the effectiveness of the approach with a correct eyes detection rate of 99.41%, on average.The results obtained with the proposed approach in an experiment involving fifteen persons under different levels of sleep deprivation also confirm the discriminability of the fatigue levels.In addition to the measurement of fatigue and drowsiness, the pose tracking capability of the proposed approach has potential applications in distraction assessment and alerting of machine operators.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Catòlica de Chile, Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Casilla 306-22, Santiago, Chile. jejimenp@puc.cl

ABSTRACT
Road accident statistics from different countries show that a significant number of accidents occur due to driver's fatigue and lack of awareness to traffic conditions. In particular, about 60% of the accidents in which long haul truck and bus drivers are involved are attributed to drowsiness and fatigue. It is thus fundamental to improve non-invasive systems for sensing a driver's state of alert. One of the main challenges to correctly resolve the state of alert is measuring the percentage of eyelid closure over time (PERCLOS), despite the driver's head and body movements. In this paper, we propose a technique that involves optical flow and driver's kinematics analysis to improve the robustness of the driver's alert state measurement under pose changes using a single camera with near-infrared illumination. The proposed approach infers and keeps track of the driver's pose in 3D space in order to ensure that eyes can be located correctly, even after periods of partial occlusion, for example, when the driver stares away from the camera. Our experiments show the effectiveness of the approach with a correct eyes detection rate of 99.41%, on average. The results obtained with the proposed approach in an experiment involving fifteen persons under different levels of sleep deprivation also confirm the discriminability of the fatigue levels. In addition to the measurement of fatigue and drowsiness, the pose tracking capability of the proposed approach has potential applications in distraction assessment and alerting of machine operators.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus