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Photonic crystal structures with tunable structure color as colorimetric sensors.

Wang H, Zhang KQ - Sensors (Basel) (2013)

Bottom Line: In particular, some kinds of the structural colors in living organisms can be reversibly changed in reaction to external stimuli.Based on the lessons learned from natural photonic structures, some specific examples of PCs-based colorimetric sensors are presented in detail to demonstrate their unprecedented potential in practical applications, such as the detections of temperature, pH, ionic species, solvents, vapor, humidity, pressure and biomolecules.The combination of the nanofabrication technique, useful design methodologies inspired by biological systems and colorimetric sensing will lead to substantial developments in low-cost, miniaturized and widely deployable optical sensors.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China. whui@suda.edu.cn

ABSTRACT
Colorimetric sensing, which transduces environmental changes into visible color changes, provides a simple yet powerful detection mechanism that is well-suited to the development of low-cost and low-power sensors. A new approach in colorimetric sensing exploits the structural color of photonic crystals (PCs) to create environmentally-influenced color-changeable materials. PCs are composed of periodic dielectrics or metallo-dielectric nanostructures that affect the propagation of electromagnetic waves (EM) by defining the allowed and forbidden photonic bands. Simultaneously, an amazing variety of naturally occurring biological systems exhibit iridescent color due to the presence of PC structures throughout multi-dimensional space. In particular, some kinds of the structural colors in living organisms can be reversibly changed in reaction to external stimuli. Based on the lessons learned from natural photonic structures, some specific examples of PCs-based colorimetric sensors are presented in detail to demonstrate their unprecedented potential in practical applications, such as the detections of temperature, pH, ionic species, solvents, vapor, humidity, pressure and biomolecules. The combination of the nanofabrication technique, useful design methodologies inspired by biological systems and colorimetric sensing will lead to substantial developments in low-cost, miniaturized and widely deployable optical sensors.

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(A) Deformation of rubbery PC films obtained from polystyrene-poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(ethyl acrylate) core-shell particles. Test bars before (green) and after (blue) 200% elongation of the PPC and release. (B) Elastomeric disk opal films prepared by compression molding before and after being deformed to a cup via deep drawing [63]. (C) A full-color fingerprint visualized using an elastic PC, overlayed onto a gray scale image of an index finger [64].
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f13-sensors-13-04192: (A) Deformation of rubbery PC films obtained from polystyrene-poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(ethyl acrylate) core-shell particles. Test bars before (green) and after (blue) 200% elongation of the PPC and release. (B) Elastomeric disk opal films prepared by compression molding before and after being deformed to a cup via deep drawing [63]. (C) A full-color fingerprint visualized using an elastic PC, overlayed onto a gray scale image of an index finger [64].

Mentions: Pressure sensors prepared by PCs-based materials are based on the mechanical deformation of elastomeric PC composites, which induce their lattice constants to change and cause reflected color changes (Figure 13) [62–66]. Most of these pressure PC sensors are solid materials composed of colloidal crystals and soft polymeric frames; compression or stretch along one direction is normally accompanied by an expansion or contraction along perpendicular directions to maintain constant volume [62,63]. Hellmann et al. reported using a fast melt-flow technique to prepare a synthetic opal synthesized from beads with rigid polystyrene-poly(methyl methacrylate) cores and soft matrix-forming poly(ethyl acrylate) shell [63]. As the beads have a rigid core with an elastomeric shell, the films are able to tolerate considerable strain. Such deformation causes a strong shift of the reflected color from red to all colors across the rainbow spectrum (Figure 13(B)).


Photonic crystal structures with tunable structure color as colorimetric sensors.

Wang H, Zhang KQ - Sensors (Basel) (2013)

(A) Deformation of rubbery PC films obtained from polystyrene-poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(ethyl acrylate) core-shell particles. Test bars before (green) and after (blue) 200% elongation of the PPC and release. (B) Elastomeric disk opal films prepared by compression molding before and after being deformed to a cup via deep drawing [63]. (C) A full-color fingerprint visualized using an elastic PC, overlayed onto a gray scale image of an index finger [64].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3673079&req=5

f13-sensors-13-04192: (A) Deformation of rubbery PC films obtained from polystyrene-poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(ethyl acrylate) core-shell particles. Test bars before (green) and after (blue) 200% elongation of the PPC and release. (B) Elastomeric disk opal films prepared by compression molding before and after being deformed to a cup via deep drawing [63]. (C) A full-color fingerprint visualized using an elastic PC, overlayed onto a gray scale image of an index finger [64].
Mentions: Pressure sensors prepared by PCs-based materials are based on the mechanical deformation of elastomeric PC composites, which induce their lattice constants to change and cause reflected color changes (Figure 13) [62–66]. Most of these pressure PC sensors are solid materials composed of colloidal crystals and soft polymeric frames; compression or stretch along one direction is normally accompanied by an expansion or contraction along perpendicular directions to maintain constant volume [62,63]. Hellmann et al. reported using a fast melt-flow technique to prepare a synthetic opal synthesized from beads with rigid polystyrene-poly(methyl methacrylate) cores and soft matrix-forming poly(ethyl acrylate) shell [63]. As the beads have a rigid core with an elastomeric shell, the films are able to tolerate considerable strain. Such deformation causes a strong shift of the reflected color from red to all colors across the rainbow spectrum (Figure 13(B)).

Bottom Line: In particular, some kinds of the structural colors in living organisms can be reversibly changed in reaction to external stimuli.Based on the lessons learned from natural photonic structures, some specific examples of PCs-based colorimetric sensors are presented in detail to demonstrate their unprecedented potential in practical applications, such as the detections of temperature, pH, ionic species, solvents, vapor, humidity, pressure and biomolecules.The combination of the nanofabrication technique, useful design methodologies inspired by biological systems and colorimetric sensing will lead to substantial developments in low-cost, miniaturized and widely deployable optical sensors.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China. whui@suda.edu.cn

ABSTRACT
Colorimetric sensing, which transduces environmental changes into visible color changes, provides a simple yet powerful detection mechanism that is well-suited to the development of low-cost and low-power sensors. A new approach in colorimetric sensing exploits the structural color of photonic crystals (PCs) to create environmentally-influenced color-changeable materials. PCs are composed of periodic dielectrics or metallo-dielectric nanostructures that affect the propagation of electromagnetic waves (EM) by defining the allowed and forbidden photonic bands. Simultaneously, an amazing variety of naturally occurring biological systems exhibit iridescent color due to the presence of PC structures throughout multi-dimensional space. In particular, some kinds of the structural colors in living organisms can be reversibly changed in reaction to external stimuli. Based on the lessons learned from natural photonic structures, some specific examples of PCs-based colorimetric sensors are presented in detail to demonstrate their unprecedented potential in practical applications, such as the detections of temperature, pH, ionic species, solvents, vapor, humidity, pressure and biomolecules. The combination of the nanofabrication technique, useful design methodologies inspired by biological systems and colorimetric sensing will lead to substantial developments in low-cost, miniaturized and widely deployable optical sensors.

Show MeSH