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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in residential dust: sources of variability.

Whitehead TP, Metayer C, Petreas M, Does M, Buffler PA, Rappaport SM - Environ. Health Perspect. (2013)

Bottom Line: Regional differences in PAH dust levels were associated with estimated ambient air concentrations of PAH.Intraregional differences between households were associated with the residential construction date and the smoking habits of residents.Our findings indicate that it may be feasible to use residential dust for retrospective assessment of PAH exposures in studies of health effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA. toddpwhitehead@berkeley.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: There is interest in using residential dust to estimate human exposure to environmental contaminants.

Objectives: We aimed to characterize the sources of variability for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in residential dust and provide guidance for investigators who plan to use residential dust to assess exposure to PAHs.

Methods: We collected repeat dust samples from 293 households in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study during two sampling rounds (from 2001 through 2007 and during 2010) using household vacuum cleaners, and measured 12 PAHs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We used a random- and a mixed-effects model for each PAH to apportion observed variance into four components and to identify sources of variability.

Results: Median concentrations for individual PAHs ranged from 10 to 190 ng/g of dust. For each PAH, total variance was apportioned into regional variability (1-9%), intraregional between-household variability (24-48%), within-household variability over time (41-57%), and within-sample analytical variability (2-33%). Regional differences in PAH dust levels were associated with estimated ambient air concentrations of PAH. Intraregional differences between households were associated with the residential construction date and the smoking habits of residents. For some PAHs, a decreasing time trend explained a modest fraction of the within-household variability; however, most of the within-household variability was unaccounted for by our mixed-effects models. Within-household differences between sampling rounds were largest when the interval between dust sample collections was at least 6 years in duration.

Conclusions: Our findings indicate that it may be feasible to use residential dust for retrospective assessment of PAH exposures in studies of health effects.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Regional variability in median (interquartile range) benzo[g,h,i]perylene concentrations (ng/g) in dust samples collected from 290 residences in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study, 2001–2007.Abbreviations: MSFBA, the metropolitan San Francisco Bay area (includes Alameda, Contra Costa, Santa Clara, San Francisco, and San Mateo counties); NSFBA, the northern San Francisco Bay area (includes Marin, Napa, Solano, and Sonoma counties); SV, the Sacramento Valley (includes Butte, Colusa, Glenn, Sacramento, Sutter, Yolo, and Yuba counties); SM, the Sierra Mountains (includes Amador, Calaveras, El Dorado, Mariposa, Nevada, Placer, and Tuolumne counties); SJV, the San Joaquin Valley (includes Fresno, Kern, Kings, Madera, Merced, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, Tulare counties); CCC, the California central coast (includes Monterey, San Benito, San Luis Obispo, and Santa Cruz counties).
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f1: Regional variability in median (interquartile range) benzo[g,h,i]perylene concentrations (ng/g) in dust samples collected from 290 residences in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study, 2001–2007.Abbreviations: MSFBA, the metropolitan San Francisco Bay area (includes Alameda, Contra Costa, Santa Clara, San Francisco, and San Mateo counties); NSFBA, the northern San Francisco Bay area (includes Marin, Napa, Solano, and Sonoma counties); SV, the Sacramento Valley (includes Butte, Colusa, Glenn, Sacramento, Sutter, Yolo, and Yuba counties); SM, the Sierra Mountains (includes Amador, Calaveras, El Dorado, Mariposa, Nevada, Placer, and Tuolumne counties); SJV, the San Joaquin Valley (includes Fresno, Kern, Kings, Madera, Merced, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, Tulare counties); CCC, the California central coast (includes Monterey, San Benito, San Luis Obispo, and Santa Cruz counties).

Mentions: Geographic information. We used a global positioning device to determine the latitude and longitude for each residence and classified each residence as belonging to one of six geographic regions (Figure 1). We estimated ambient air PAH concentrations at a census tract resolution using results from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2005 National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (U.S. EPA 2011). The U.S. EPA assessment employed a National Emissions Inventory (U.S. EPA 2012) to estimate ambient air concentrations of 16 PAHs (including the 12 PAHs measured in this study, as well as acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, fluorine, and naphthalene) attributable to emissions from major stationary sources (e.g., power plants), area sources (e.g., commercial buildings), and mobile sources (e.g., automobiles). To distinguish between traffic emissions and emissions from other urban PAH sources, we considered ambient concentrations of PAH attributable to mobile sources and ambient concentrations of PAH attributable to area sources as two independent determinants of PAH levels in residential dust. Since the association between ambient PAH estimates and residential-dust PAH concentrations was nonlinear, we used the rank order of these census tract–level estimates for all regression analyses.


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in residential dust: sources of variability.

Whitehead TP, Metayer C, Petreas M, Does M, Buffler PA, Rappaport SM - Environ. Health Perspect. (2013)

Regional variability in median (interquartile range) benzo[g,h,i]perylene concentrations (ng/g) in dust samples collected from 290 residences in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study, 2001–2007.Abbreviations: MSFBA, the metropolitan San Francisco Bay area (includes Alameda, Contra Costa, Santa Clara, San Francisco, and San Mateo counties); NSFBA, the northern San Francisco Bay area (includes Marin, Napa, Solano, and Sonoma counties); SV, the Sacramento Valley (includes Butte, Colusa, Glenn, Sacramento, Sutter, Yolo, and Yuba counties); SM, the Sierra Mountains (includes Amador, Calaveras, El Dorado, Mariposa, Nevada, Placer, and Tuolumne counties); SJV, the San Joaquin Valley (includes Fresno, Kern, Kings, Madera, Merced, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, Tulare counties); CCC, the California central coast (includes Monterey, San Benito, San Luis Obispo, and Santa Cruz counties).
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3672903&req=5

f1: Regional variability in median (interquartile range) benzo[g,h,i]perylene concentrations (ng/g) in dust samples collected from 290 residences in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study, 2001–2007.Abbreviations: MSFBA, the metropolitan San Francisco Bay area (includes Alameda, Contra Costa, Santa Clara, San Francisco, and San Mateo counties); NSFBA, the northern San Francisco Bay area (includes Marin, Napa, Solano, and Sonoma counties); SV, the Sacramento Valley (includes Butte, Colusa, Glenn, Sacramento, Sutter, Yolo, and Yuba counties); SM, the Sierra Mountains (includes Amador, Calaveras, El Dorado, Mariposa, Nevada, Placer, and Tuolumne counties); SJV, the San Joaquin Valley (includes Fresno, Kern, Kings, Madera, Merced, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, Tulare counties); CCC, the California central coast (includes Monterey, San Benito, San Luis Obispo, and Santa Cruz counties).
Mentions: Geographic information. We used a global positioning device to determine the latitude and longitude for each residence and classified each residence as belonging to one of six geographic regions (Figure 1). We estimated ambient air PAH concentrations at a census tract resolution using results from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2005 National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (U.S. EPA 2011). The U.S. EPA assessment employed a National Emissions Inventory (U.S. EPA 2012) to estimate ambient air concentrations of 16 PAHs (including the 12 PAHs measured in this study, as well as acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, fluorine, and naphthalene) attributable to emissions from major stationary sources (e.g., power plants), area sources (e.g., commercial buildings), and mobile sources (e.g., automobiles). To distinguish between traffic emissions and emissions from other urban PAH sources, we considered ambient concentrations of PAH attributable to mobile sources and ambient concentrations of PAH attributable to area sources as two independent determinants of PAH levels in residential dust. Since the association between ambient PAH estimates and residential-dust PAH concentrations was nonlinear, we used the rank order of these census tract–level estimates for all regression analyses.

Bottom Line: Regional differences in PAH dust levels were associated with estimated ambient air concentrations of PAH.Intraregional differences between households were associated with the residential construction date and the smoking habits of residents.Our findings indicate that it may be feasible to use residential dust for retrospective assessment of PAH exposures in studies of health effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA. toddpwhitehead@berkeley.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: There is interest in using residential dust to estimate human exposure to environmental contaminants.

Objectives: We aimed to characterize the sources of variability for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in residential dust and provide guidance for investigators who plan to use residential dust to assess exposure to PAHs.

Methods: We collected repeat dust samples from 293 households in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study during two sampling rounds (from 2001 through 2007 and during 2010) using household vacuum cleaners, and measured 12 PAHs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We used a random- and a mixed-effects model for each PAH to apportion observed variance into four components and to identify sources of variability.

Results: Median concentrations for individual PAHs ranged from 10 to 190 ng/g of dust. For each PAH, total variance was apportioned into regional variability (1-9%), intraregional between-household variability (24-48%), within-household variability over time (41-57%), and within-sample analytical variability (2-33%). Regional differences in PAH dust levels were associated with estimated ambient air concentrations of PAH. Intraregional differences between households were associated with the residential construction date and the smoking habits of residents. For some PAHs, a decreasing time trend explained a modest fraction of the within-household variability; however, most of the within-household variability was unaccounted for by our mixed-effects models. Within-household differences between sampling rounds were largest when the interval between dust sample collections was at least 6 years in duration.

Conclusions: Our findings indicate that it may be feasible to use residential dust for retrospective assessment of PAH exposures in studies of health effects.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus