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New-concept batteries based on aqueous Li+/Na+ mixed-ion electrolytes.

Chen L, Gu Q, Zhou X, Lee S, Xia Y, Liu Z - Sci Rep (2013)

Bottom Line: Rechargeable batteries made from low-cost and abundant materials operating in safe aqueous electrolytes are attractive for large-scale energy storage.One involves Li(+) insertion/extraction reaction, and the other mainly relates to Na(+) extraction/insertion reaction.Hence, the Li(+)/Na(+) mixed-ion batteries offer promising applications in energy storage and Li(+)/Na(+) separation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201, P R China.

ABSTRACT
Rechargeable batteries made from low-cost and abundant materials operating in safe aqueous electrolytes are attractive for large-scale energy storage. Sodium-ion battery is considered as a potential alternative of current lithium-ion battery. As sodium-intercalation compounds suitable for aqueous batteries are limited, we adopt a novel concept of Li(+)/Na(+) mixed-ion electrolytes to create two batteries (LiMn2O4/Na0.22MnO2 and Na0.44MnO2/TiP2O7), which relies on two electrochemical processes. One involves Li(+) insertion/extraction reaction, and the other mainly relates to Na(+) extraction/insertion reaction. Two batteries exhibit specific energy of 17 Wh kg(-1) and 25 Wh kg(-1) based on the total weight of active electrode materials, respectively. As well, aqueous LiMn2O4/Na0.22MnO2 battery is capable of separating Li(+) and Na(+) due to its specific mechanism unlike the traditional "rocking-chair" lithium-ion batteries. Hence, the Li(+)/Na(+) mixed-ion batteries offer promising applications in energy storage and Li(+)/Na(+) separation.

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The LiMn2O4/Na0.22MnO2 mixed-ion battery.(a), A schematic of the battery. (b), Charging-discharging curves at a rate of 0.25 C in 1 M Na2SO4 + 0.5 M Li2SO4. (c), Charging-discharging curves at a rate of 0.25 C in 1 M Na2SO4 + 0. 125 M Li2SO4. (d), Cycle life tests of the battery at a rate of 0.25 C in mixed electrolytes. (1 C = 60 mAh g−1).
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f3: The LiMn2O4/Na0.22MnO2 mixed-ion battery.(a), A schematic of the battery. (b), Charging-discharging curves at a rate of 0.25 C in 1 M Na2SO4 + 0.5 M Li2SO4. (c), Charging-discharging curves at a rate of 0.25 C in 1 M Na2SO4 + 0. 125 M Li2SO4. (d), Cycle life tests of the battery at a rate of 0.25 C in mixed electrolytes. (1 C = 60 mAh g−1).

Mentions: Based on the above mixed-ion chemistry of Na0.44MnO2, LiMn2O4 and TiP2O7, we assembled two practical prototypes of mixed-ion batteries (LiMn2O4/Na0.22MnO2 and Na0.44MnO2/TiP2O7). Fig. 3a illustrates the principle of LiMn2O4/Na0.22MnO2 system (Na0.22MnO2 is obtained through electrochemical oxidation of Na0.44MnO2). One side mainly involves the immigration of Na+ between electrolytes and Na0.22MnO2, and the other side is related to the insertion/extraction of Li+ into/from LiMn2O4. Typical charge-discharge curves of LiMn2O4/Na0.22MnO2 battery in two different electrolytes are displayed in Fig. 3b and 3c. Such a battery can deliver a capacity of 29 mAh g−1 (0.25 C rate) based on the total mass of active materials between 0.2 V and 1.05 V. The coulombic efficiency of the battery after the first cycle is above 90%, indicating its good reversibility. Fig. 3d shows the plot of discharging capacity retention percentage vs. the cycle number. In both electrolytes, the fading rate of the capacity in the initial 10 cycles is much higher than the one after 10 cycles. After 45 cycles, 83% of the original capacity is remained in 1 M Na2SO4 + 0.125 M Li2SO4. But in 1 M Na2SO4 + 0.5 M Li2SO4, the capacity remains only 61% of the original one. Therefore, its cycling stability can be enhanced by decreasing the Li+/Na+ ratio. The rate performance of LiMn2O4/Na0.22MnO2 battery in 1 M Na2SO4 + 0.125 M Li2SO4 is also tested. The discharge capacities of 27.9, 25.5, 19.2, 11.7 and 7.7 mAh g−1 are obtained at 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 C rate, respectively (see Supplementary Fig. S5).


New-concept batteries based on aqueous Li+/Na+ mixed-ion electrolytes.

Chen L, Gu Q, Zhou X, Lee S, Xia Y, Liu Z - Sci Rep (2013)

The LiMn2O4/Na0.22MnO2 mixed-ion battery.(a), A schematic of the battery. (b), Charging-discharging curves at a rate of 0.25 C in 1 M Na2SO4 + 0.5 M Li2SO4. (c), Charging-discharging curves at a rate of 0.25 C in 1 M Na2SO4 + 0. 125 M Li2SO4. (d), Cycle life tests of the battery at a rate of 0.25 C in mixed electrolytes. (1 C = 60 mAh g−1).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3672879&req=5

f3: The LiMn2O4/Na0.22MnO2 mixed-ion battery.(a), A schematic of the battery. (b), Charging-discharging curves at a rate of 0.25 C in 1 M Na2SO4 + 0.5 M Li2SO4. (c), Charging-discharging curves at a rate of 0.25 C in 1 M Na2SO4 + 0. 125 M Li2SO4. (d), Cycle life tests of the battery at a rate of 0.25 C in mixed electrolytes. (1 C = 60 mAh g−1).
Mentions: Based on the above mixed-ion chemistry of Na0.44MnO2, LiMn2O4 and TiP2O7, we assembled two practical prototypes of mixed-ion batteries (LiMn2O4/Na0.22MnO2 and Na0.44MnO2/TiP2O7). Fig. 3a illustrates the principle of LiMn2O4/Na0.22MnO2 system (Na0.22MnO2 is obtained through electrochemical oxidation of Na0.44MnO2). One side mainly involves the immigration of Na+ between electrolytes and Na0.22MnO2, and the other side is related to the insertion/extraction of Li+ into/from LiMn2O4. Typical charge-discharge curves of LiMn2O4/Na0.22MnO2 battery in two different electrolytes are displayed in Fig. 3b and 3c. Such a battery can deliver a capacity of 29 mAh g−1 (0.25 C rate) based on the total mass of active materials between 0.2 V and 1.05 V. The coulombic efficiency of the battery after the first cycle is above 90%, indicating its good reversibility. Fig. 3d shows the plot of discharging capacity retention percentage vs. the cycle number. In both electrolytes, the fading rate of the capacity in the initial 10 cycles is much higher than the one after 10 cycles. After 45 cycles, 83% of the original capacity is remained in 1 M Na2SO4 + 0.125 M Li2SO4. But in 1 M Na2SO4 + 0.5 M Li2SO4, the capacity remains only 61% of the original one. Therefore, its cycling stability can be enhanced by decreasing the Li+/Na+ ratio. The rate performance of LiMn2O4/Na0.22MnO2 battery in 1 M Na2SO4 + 0.125 M Li2SO4 is also tested. The discharge capacities of 27.9, 25.5, 19.2, 11.7 and 7.7 mAh g−1 are obtained at 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 C rate, respectively (see Supplementary Fig. S5).

Bottom Line: Rechargeable batteries made from low-cost and abundant materials operating in safe aqueous electrolytes are attractive for large-scale energy storage.One involves Li(+) insertion/extraction reaction, and the other mainly relates to Na(+) extraction/insertion reaction.Hence, the Li(+)/Na(+) mixed-ion batteries offer promising applications in energy storage and Li(+)/Na(+) separation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201, P R China.

ABSTRACT
Rechargeable batteries made from low-cost and abundant materials operating in safe aqueous electrolytes are attractive for large-scale energy storage. Sodium-ion battery is considered as a potential alternative of current lithium-ion battery. As sodium-intercalation compounds suitable for aqueous batteries are limited, we adopt a novel concept of Li(+)/Na(+) mixed-ion electrolytes to create two batteries (LiMn2O4/Na0.22MnO2 and Na0.44MnO2/TiP2O7), which relies on two electrochemical processes. One involves Li(+) insertion/extraction reaction, and the other mainly relates to Na(+) extraction/insertion reaction. Two batteries exhibit specific energy of 17 Wh kg(-1) and 25 Wh kg(-1) based on the total weight of active electrode materials, respectively. As well, aqueous LiMn2O4/Na0.22MnO2 battery is capable of separating Li(+) and Na(+) due to its specific mechanism unlike the traditional "rocking-chair" lithium-ion batteries. Hence, the Li(+)/Na(+) mixed-ion batteries offer promising applications in energy storage and Li(+)/Na(+) separation.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus