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Green Tea Polyphenols and Sulfasalazine have Parallel Anti-Inflammatory Properties in Colitis Models.

Oz HS, Chen T, de Villiers WJ - Front Immunol (2013)

Bottom Line: The inflammatory markers TNFα (3-fold), IL-6 (14-fold), and serum amyloid A (40-fold) increased in colitic animals and significantly decreased with treatment regiments.EGCG additionally reduced leptin levels (p < 0.01) while GrTP and sulfasalazine had no effect on leptin levels (p < 0.05).GrTP and EGCG improved antioxidants levels and attenuated severity of colitis analogous to sulfasalazine.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kentucky Medical Center , Lexington, KY , USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: There is no cure for autoimmune chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD patients commonly use complementary and alternative medications of which the safety, efficacy, and interaction with standard-of-care therapies are not fully known. Thus the consequences can become life-threatening. Sulfasalazine commonly used in IBD, potentially has severe adverse effects, including infertility, pulmonary fibrosis, lack of response, and ultimately patients may require intestinal resection. We hypothesized that green tea polyphenols (GrTP, EGCG) and sulfasalazine have similar anti-inflammatory properties.

Methods: BALB/c mice received Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to induce colitis (ulcerative colitis model). Exposure of IL-10 deficient mice (BALB/c-background) to normal microbiota provoked enterocolitis (mimics Crohn's disease). Animals were treated with agents incorporated into daily diets. Control animals received sham treatment.

Results: DSS-treated animals developed severe bloody diarrhea and colitis (score 0-4, 3.2 ± 0.27). IL-10 deficient mice developed severe enterocolitis as manifested by diarrhea, rectal prolapse, and colonic lesions. Animals tolerated regimens (GrTP, EGCG, sulfasalazine) with no major side effects, and further developed less severe colitis. IL-10 deficient animals became moribund on high dose, while tolerated low and Mid doses with significant improved symptoms of enterocolitis. GrTP, EGCG, and sulfasalazine significantly ameliorated colonic damage and histological scores in treated animals in a similar manner (GrTP vs. DSS p < 0.05; EGCG, sulfasalazine vs. DSS p < 0.01). The inflammatory markers TNFα (3-fold), IL-6 (14-fold), and serum amyloid A (40-fold) increased in colitic animals and significantly decreased with treatment regiments. In contrast, circulatory leptin levels decreased in colitic animals (twofold). EGCG additionally reduced leptin levels (p < 0.01) while GrTP and sulfasalazine had no effect on leptin levels (p < 0.05). Hepatic and colonic antioxidants were significantly depleted in colitic animals and treatment regiments significantly restored antioxidants levels.

Conclusion: GrTP and EGCG improved antioxidants levels and attenuated severity of colitis analogous to sulfasalazine. Future studies will reveal whether polyphenols can become an alternative/additive therapy for IBD therapy in humans.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Percent body weight loss in DSS-induced colitis compared to the normal control animals. Colitic mice lost body weight and animals on High dose EGCG therapy showed the most weight loss. Mid and Low doses of EGCG had no effect on body weight. In contrast, GrTP and Sulfasalazine partially improved the body weight loss.
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Figure 1: Percent body weight loss in DSS-induced colitis compared to the normal control animals. Colitic mice lost body weight and animals on High dose EGCG therapy showed the most weight loss. Mid and Low doses of EGCG had no effect on body weight. In contrast, GrTP and Sulfasalazine partially improved the body weight loss.

Mentions: BALB/C wildtype animals tolerated GrTP, EGCG, and sulfasalazine in their daily diets with no severe side effects. Weight loss is a hallmark of colitis and colitic animals lost 8% of their body weight. GrTP (−2.5%) and Sulfasalazine (−5%) partially improved the weight loss in colitic animals, while, Mid and Low doses of EGCG had no effect on preserving animals’ weight (−8%). In contrast, High dose EGCG consumption further accelerated weight loss (−12%) (Figure 1). Colitic animals developed anemia due to bloody diarrhea, manifested with pale mucosa and a significant reduction in hematocrit (Control 41.5 ± 1.5 vs. colitic 25.2 ± 1.7 p < 0.05). EGCG and GrTP partially improved anemia and the hematocrit value. In contrast, sulfasalazine treatment further triggered anemia and the reduction in the hematocrit value (21.5 ± 2 p < 0.01) (Table 1). EGCG and GrTP administered to naïve control animals had no negative effect on the colonic weight or length. Colonic length became shortened (35%) and colonic weight increased in colitic animals due to the accumulation of inflammatory cells and EGCG partially improved the length (9%) with no effect on weight compared to colitic animals (Table 1). IL-10 deficient animals tolerated Low and Mid doses of GrTP and showed significantly improved enterocolitic symptoms while, lost weight and became moribund on high dose and were terminated.


Green Tea Polyphenols and Sulfasalazine have Parallel Anti-Inflammatory Properties in Colitis Models.

Oz HS, Chen T, de Villiers WJ - Front Immunol (2013)

Percent body weight loss in DSS-induced colitis compared to the normal control animals. Colitic mice lost body weight and animals on High dose EGCG therapy showed the most weight loss. Mid and Low doses of EGCG had no effect on body weight. In contrast, GrTP and Sulfasalazine partially improved the body weight loss.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3672863&req=5

Figure 1: Percent body weight loss in DSS-induced colitis compared to the normal control animals. Colitic mice lost body weight and animals on High dose EGCG therapy showed the most weight loss. Mid and Low doses of EGCG had no effect on body weight. In contrast, GrTP and Sulfasalazine partially improved the body weight loss.
Mentions: BALB/C wildtype animals tolerated GrTP, EGCG, and sulfasalazine in their daily diets with no severe side effects. Weight loss is a hallmark of colitis and colitic animals lost 8% of their body weight. GrTP (−2.5%) and Sulfasalazine (−5%) partially improved the weight loss in colitic animals, while, Mid and Low doses of EGCG had no effect on preserving animals’ weight (−8%). In contrast, High dose EGCG consumption further accelerated weight loss (−12%) (Figure 1). Colitic animals developed anemia due to bloody diarrhea, manifested with pale mucosa and a significant reduction in hematocrit (Control 41.5 ± 1.5 vs. colitic 25.2 ± 1.7 p < 0.05). EGCG and GrTP partially improved anemia and the hematocrit value. In contrast, sulfasalazine treatment further triggered anemia and the reduction in the hematocrit value (21.5 ± 2 p < 0.01) (Table 1). EGCG and GrTP administered to naïve control animals had no negative effect on the colonic weight or length. Colonic length became shortened (35%) and colonic weight increased in colitic animals due to the accumulation of inflammatory cells and EGCG partially improved the length (9%) with no effect on weight compared to colitic animals (Table 1). IL-10 deficient animals tolerated Low and Mid doses of GrTP and showed significantly improved enterocolitic symptoms while, lost weight and became moribund on high dose and were terminated.

Bottom Line: The inflammatory markers TNFα (3-fold), IL-6 (14-fold), and serum amyloid A (40-fold) increased in colitic animals and significantly decreased with treatment regiments.EGCG additionally reduced leptin levels (p < 0.01) while GrTP and sulfasalazine had no effect on leptin levels (p < 0.05).GrTP and EGCG improved antioxidants levels and attenuated severity of colitis analogous to sulfasalazine.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kentucky Medical Center , Lexington, KY , USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: There is no cure for autoimmune chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD patients commonly use complementary and alternative medications of which the safety, efficacy, and interaction with standard-of-care therapies are not fully known. Thus the consequences can become life-threatening. Sulfasalazine commonly used in IBD, potentially has severe adverse effects, including infertility, pulmonary fibrosis, lack of response, and ultimately patients may require intestinal resection. We hypothesized that green tea polyphenols (GrTP, EGCG) and sulfasalazine have similar anti-inflammatory properties.

Methods: BALB/c mice received Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to induce colitis (ulcerative colitis model). Exposure of IL-10 deficient mice (BALB/c-background) to normal microbiota provoked enterocolitis (mimics Crohn's disease). Animals were treated with agents incorporated into daily diets. Control animals received sham treatment.

Results: DSS-treated animals developed severe bloody diarrhea and colitis (score 0-4, 3.2 ± 0.27). IL-10 deficient mice developed severe enterocolitis as manifested by diarrhea, rectal prolapse, and colonic lesions. Animals tolerated regimens (GrTP, EGCG, sulfasalazine) with no major side effects, and further developed less severe colitis. IL-10 deficient animals became moribund on high dose, while tolerated low and Mid doses with significant improved symptoms of enterocolitis. GrTP, EGCG, and sulfasalazine significantly ameliorated colonic damage and histological scores in treated animals in a similar manner (GrTP vs. DSS p < 0.05; EGCG, sulfasalazine vs. DSS p < 0.01). The inflammatory markers TNFα (3-fold), IL-6 (14-fold), and serum amyloid A (40-fold) increased in colitic animals and significantly decreased with treatment regiments. In contrast, circulatory leptin levels decreased in colitic animals (twofold). EGCG additionally reduced leptin levels (p < 0.01) while GrTP and sulfasalazine had no effect on leptin levels (p < 0.05). Hepatic and colonic antioxidants were significantly depleted in colitic animals and treatment regiments significantly restored antioxidants levels.

Conclusion: GrTP and EGCG improved antioxidants levels and attenuated severity of colitis analogous to sulfasalazine. Future studies will reveal whether polyphenols can become an alternative/additive therapy for IBD therapy in humans.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus