Limits...
Monitoring serotonin signaling on a subsecond time scale.

Dankoski EC, Wightman RM - Front Integr Neurosci (2013)

Bottom Line: Microdialysis studies have provided a clear picture of how ambient serotonin levels fluctuate with regard to behavioral states and pharmacological manipulation, and anatomical and electrophysiological studies describe the location and activity of serotonin and its targets.Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is an electrochemical method that can detect minute changes in neurotransmitter concentration on the same temporal and spatial dimensions as extrasynaptic neurotransmission.Subsecond measurements both in vivo and in brain slice preparations enable us to tease apart the processes of release and uptake.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Curriculum in Neurobiology, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

ABSTRACT
Serotonin modulates a variety of processes throughout the brain, but it is perhaps best known for its involvement in the etiology and treatment of depressive disorders. Microdialysis studies have provided a clear picture of how ambient serotonin levels fluctuate with regard to behavioral states and pharmacological manipulation, and anatomical and electrophysiological studies describe the location and activity of serotonin and its targets. However, few techniques combine the temporal resolution, spatial precision, and chemical selectivity to directly evaluate serotonin release and uptake. Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is an electrochemical method that can detect minute changes in neurotransmitter concentration on the same temporal and spatial dimensions as extrasynaptic neurotransmission. Subsecond measurements both in vivo and in brain slice preparations enable us to tease apart the processes of release and uptake. These studies have particularly highlighted the significance of regulatory mechanisms to proper functioning of the serotonin system. This article will review the findings of FSCV investigations of serotonergic neurotransmission and discuss this technique's potential in future studies of the serotonin system.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A synopsis of the findings presented in this article. Serotonin (5-HT) is synthesized from tryptophan in a two-step process requiring tryptophan hydroxylase and aromatic amino acid decarboxylase. Serotonin is packaged into vesicles by vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) and is released via calcium-dependent exocytosis. Released serotonin diffuses to extrasynaptic receptors and transporters via volume transmission. Its autoreceptors (5-HT1A, 1B, and 1D) are inhibitory and coupled to Gi proteins. The serotonin transporter (Thienprasert and Singer) has high affinity and selectivity for uptake of extracellular serotonin. Inside the terminal, serotonin is primarily metabolized by monoamine oxidase (MAO).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3672682&req=5

Figure 5: A synopsis of the findings presented in this article. Serotonin (5-HT) is synthesized from tryptophan in a two-step process requiring tryptophan hydroxylase and aromatic amino acid decarboxylase. Serotonin is packaged into vesicles by vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) and is released via calcium-dependent exocytosis. Released serotonin diffuses to extrasynaptic receptors and transporters via volume transmission. Its autoreceptors (5-HT1A, 1B, and 1D) are inhibitory and coupled to Gi proteins. The serotonin transporter (Thienprasert and Singer) has high affinity and selectivity for uptake of extracellular serotonin. Inside the terminal, serotonin is primarily metabolized by monoamine oxidase (MAO).

Mentions: Serotonin signaling is an important component in the etiology and treatment of many neurological disorders. By combining subsecond temporal resolution with nanomolar sensitivity to concentration changes, FSCV has revealed a great deal about dynamic serotonin transmission. These findings are summarized by the illustration in Figure 5. Studies using voltammetric methods have emphasized the importance of autoreceptor-mediated inhibitory feedback mechanisms in normal signaling as well as response to SSRIs. Further, recent in vivo measurements suggest that intact brain circuitry supports the involvement of multiple modulatory mechanisms in the control of serotonin signaling. New developments in a variety of techniques present potential for more intricate assessment of regulation within and external to the serotonin system. Future studies using FSCV in combination with new technologies will likely elucidate many of the mysteries of the serotonin system.


Monitoring serotonin signaling on a subsecond time scale.

Dankoski EC, Wightman RM - Front Integr Neurosci (2013)

A synopsis of the findings presented in this article. Serotonin (5-HT) is synthesized from tryptophan in a two-step process requiring tryptophan hydroxylase and aromatic amino acid decarboxylase. Serotonin is packaged into vesicles by vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) and is released via calcium-dependent exocytosis. Released serotonin diffuses to extrasynaptic receptors and transporters via volume transmission. Its autoreceptors (5-HT1A, 1B, and 1D) are inhibitory and coupled to Gi proteins. The serotonin transporter (Thienprasert and Singer) has high affinity and selectivity for uptake of extracellular serotonin. Inside the terminal, serotonin is primarily metabolized by monoamine oxidase (MAO).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3672682&req=5

Figure 5: A synopsis of the findings presented in this article. Serotonin (5-HT) is synthesized from tryptophan in a two-step process requiring tryptophan hydroxylase and aromatic amino acid decarboxylase. Serotonin is packaged into vesicles by vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) and is released via calcium-dependent exocytosis. Released serotonin diffuses to extrasynaptic receptors and transporters via volume transmission. Its autoreceptors (5-HT1A, 1B, and 1D) are inhibitory and coupled to Gi proteins. The serotonin transporter (Thienprasert and Singer) has high affinity and selectivity for uptake of extracellular serotonin. Inside the terminal, serotonin is primarily metabolized by monoamine oxidase (MAO).
Mentions: Serotonin signaling is an important component in the etiology and treatment of many neurological disorders. By combining subsecond temporal resolution with nanomolar sensitivity to concentration changes, FSCV has revealed a great deal about dynamic serotonin transmission. These findings are summarized by the illustration in Figure 5. Studies using voltammetric methods have emphasized the importance of autoreceptor-mediated inhibitory feedback mechanisms in normal signaling as well as response to SSRIs. Further, recent in vivo measurements suggest that intact brain circuitry supports the involvement of multiple modulatory mechanisms in the control of serotonin signaling. New developments in a variety of techniques present potential for more intricate assessment of regulation within and external to the serotonin system. Future studies using FSCV in combination with new technologies will likely elucidate many of the mysteries of the serotonin system.

Bottom Line: Microdialysis studies have provided a clear picture of how ambient serotonin levels fluctuate with regard to behavioral states and pharmacological manipulation, and anatomical and electrophysiological studies describe the location and activity of serotonin and its targets.Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is an electrochemical method that can detect minute changes in neurotransmitter concentration on the same temporal and spatial dimensions as extrasynaptic neurotransmission.Subsecond measurements both in vivo and in brain slice preparations enable us to tease apart the processes of release and uptake.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Curriculum in Neurobiology, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

ABSTRACT
Serotonin modulates a variety of processes throughout the brain, but it is perhaps best known for its involvement in the etiology and treatment of depressive disorders. Microdialysis studies have provided a clear picture of how ambient serotonin levels fluctuate with regard to behavioral states and pharmacological manipulation, and anatomical and electrophysiological studies describe the location and activity of serotonin and its targets. However, few techniques combine the temporal resolution, spatial precision, and chemical selectivity to directly evaluate serotonin release and uptake. Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is an electrochemical method that can detect minute changes in neurotransmitter concentration on the same temporal and spatial dimensions as extrasynaptic neurotransmission. Subsecond measurements both in vivo and in brain slice preparations enable us to tease apart the processes of release and uptake. These studies have particularly highlighted the significance of regulatory mechanisms to proper functioning of the serotonin system. This article will review the findings of FSCV investigations of serotonergic neurotransmission and discuss this technique's potential in future studies of the serotonin system.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus