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An interaction of a NR3C1 polymorphism and antenatal solar activity impacts both hippocampus volume and neuroticism in adulthood.

Montag C, Eichner M, Markett S, Quesada CM, Schoene-Bake JC, Melchers M, Plieger T, Weber B, Reuter M - Front Hum Neurosci (2013)

Bottom Line: Antenatally, especially smoking or alcohol drinking habits of the mother dramatically influence the health of the child during pregnancy and even later on in life.The NR3C1 gene is the focus of interest, because of its influence on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and negative emotionality.The present findings should encourage researchers in psychology and psychiatry to include also environmental influences such as solar activity besides genetics to better understand the etiogenesis of psychiatric disorders.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Bonn Bonn, Germany ; Center for Economics and Neuroscience, University of Bonn Bonn, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The investigation of the interaction of genes and environment in the context of mental health and personality yields important new insights for a better understanding of human nature. Both antenatal and postnatal environmental factors have been considered as potential modulators of genetic activity. Antenatally, especially smoking or alcohol drinking habits of the mother dramatically influence the health of the child during pregnancy and even later on in life. In the present study we would like to introduce a more "distant" factor that is not under the control of the becoming mother but that nevertheless plays a potential role for the health of the unborn child later on in adulthood. Here, we retrospectively investigate the influence of solar activity (while the child is still in the uterus of the becoming mother) on brain structure (with a focus on hippocampus and amygdala volume) and personality in adulthood. We observe an interaction of a genetic variant (rs41423247) of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) and solar activity in the first trimester after conception on both hippocampal volume and the personality trait neuroticism in adulthood in N = 254 participants. The NR3C1 gene is the focus of interest, because of its influence on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and negative emotionality. Carriers of the CC variant of rs41423247 grown in the womb under the influence of high sun radiation (high solar activity) show both the highest hippocampal volume in the left hemisphere and lowest neuroticism scores. The present findings should encourage researchers in psychology and psychiatry to include also environmental influences such as solar activity besides genetics to better understand the etiogenesis of psychiatric disorders.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Interaction effect of rs41423247 (G±) by solar activity in the first trimester (high/low) on neuroticism (means and SEM are presented; *p < 0.05).
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Figure 3: Interaction effect of rs41423247 (G±) by solar activity in the first trimester (high/low) on neuroticism (means and SEM are presented; *p < 0.05).

Mentions: An ANCOVA with age as covariate revealed a significant rs41423247 (G±) by solar activity in the first trimester (high/low) interaction effect on neuroticism [F(1, 245) = 4.14, p = 0.04]. In this statistical analysis sex (male/female) was included as a further independent variable given its reported influence on neuroticism. No interaction effects between sex and rs41423247 (G±) or between sex (male/female) and solar activity (high/low) on neuroticism was observed. Moreover, no three way interaction between rs41423247 (G±), solar activity (high/low) and sex (male/female) on neuroticism could be detected. This analysis is not very meaningful, because the cell sizes are very small. In detail, carriers of the G− variant of rs41423247 exposed to the highest solar activity in the womb of the mother had the lowest neuroticism scores. A post hoc test revealed that the neuroticism scores of this group were significantly smaller than of those with the configuration G–/low solar activity (p < 0.05). No significant differences could be observed between G–/high solar activity group and the other two remaining configurations. The group G–/low solar activity exhibiting the highest neuroticism scores differed significantly from all three other groups (p < 0.05). All results (including the analysis for the other trimesters) are presented in detail in Tables 3, 4 as well as in Figures 3, 4. No other effects could be observed.


An interaction of a NR3C1 polymorphism and antenatal solar activity impacts both hippocampus volume and neuroticism in adulthood.

Montag C, Eichner M, Markett S, Quesada CM, Schoene-Bake JC, Melchers M, Plieger T, Weber B, Reuter M - Front Hum Neurosci (2013)

Interaction effect of rs41423247 (G±) by solar activity in the first trimester (high/low) on neuroticism (means and SEM are presented; *p < 0.05).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3672672&req=5

Figure 3: Interaction effect of rs41423247 (G±) by solar activity in the first trimester (high/low) on neuroticism (means and SEM are presented; *p < 0.05).
Mentions: An ANCOVA with age as covariate revealed a significant rs41423247 (G±) by solar activity in the first trimester (high/low) interaction effect on neuroticism [F(1, 245) = 4.14, p = 0.04]. In this statistical analysis sex (male/female) was included as a further independent variable given its reported influence on neuroticism. No interaction effects between sex and rs41423247 (G±) or between sex (male/female) and solar activity (high/low) on neuroticism was observed. Moreover, no three way interaction between rs41423247 (G±), solar activity (high/low) and sex (male/female) on neuroticism could be detected. This analysis is not very meaningful, because the cell sizes are very small. In detail, carriers of the G− variant of rs41423247 exposed to the highest solar activity in the womb of the mother had the lowest neuroticism scores. A post hoc test revealed that the neuroticism scores of this group were significantly smaller than of those with the configuration G–/low solar activity (p < 0.05). No significant differences could be observed between G–/high solar activity group and the other two remaining configurations. The group G–/low solar activity exhibiting the highest neuroticism scores differed significantly from all three other groups (p < 0.05). All results (including the analysis for the other trimesters) are presented in detail in Tables 3, 4 as well as in Figures 3, 4. No other effects could be observed.

Bottom Line: Antenatally, especially smoking or alcohol drinking habits of the mother dramatically influence the health of the child during pregnancy and even later on in life.The NR3C1 gene is the focus of interest, because of its influence on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and negative emotionality.The present findings should encourage researchers in psychology and psychiatry to include also environmental influences such as solar activity besides genetics to better understand the etiogenesis of psychiatric disorders.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Bonn Bonn, Germany ; Center for Economics and Neuroscience, University of Bonn Bonn, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The investigation of the interaction of genes and environment in the context of mental health and personality yields important new insights for a better understanding of human nature. Both antenatal and postnatal environmental factors have been considered as potential modulators of genetic activity. Antenatally, especially smoking or alcohol drinking habits of the mother dramatically influence the health of the child during pregnancy and even later on in life. In the present study we would like to introduce a more "distant" factor that is not under the control of the becoming mother but that nevertheless plays a potential role for the health of the unborn child later on in adulthood. Here, we retrospectively investigate the influence of solar activity (while the child is still in the uterus of the becoming mother) on brain structure (with a focus on hippocampus and amygdala volume) and personality in adulthood. We observe an interaction of a genetic variant (rs41423247) of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) and solar activity in the first trimester after conception on both hippocampal volume and the personality trait neuroticism in adulthood in N = 254 participants. The NR3C1 gene is the focus of interest, because of its influence on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and negative emotionality. Carriers of the CC variant of rs41423247 grown in the womb under the influence of high sun radiation (high solar activity) show both the highest hippocampal volume in the left hemisphere and lowest neuroticism scores. The present findings should encourage researchers in psychology and psychiatry to include also environmental influences such as solar activity besides genetics to better understand the etiogenesis of psychiatric disorders.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus