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Strategies for prevention of postoperative delirium: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials.

Zhang H, Lu Y, Liu M, Zou Z, Wang L, Xu FY, Shi XY - Crit Care (2013)

Bottom Line: The PRISMA statement guidelines were followed.Meta-analysis showed dexmedetomidine sedation was associated with less delirium compared to sedation produced by other drugs (two RCTs with 415 patients, pooled risk ratio (RR)=0.39; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.16 to 0.95).No difference in the incidences of delirium was found between: neuraxial and general anesthesia (four RCTs with 511 patients, RR=0.99; 95% CI=0.65 to 1.50); epidural and intravenous analgesia (three RCTs with 167 patients, RR=0.93; 95% CI=0.61 to 1.43) or acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and placebo (four RCTs with 242 patients, RR=0.95; 95% CI=0.63 to 1.44).

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The ideal measures to prevent postoperative delirium remain unestablished. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the significance of potential interventions.

Methods: The PRISMA statement guidelines were followed. Two researchers searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library for articles published in English before August 2012. Additional sources included reference lists from reviews and related articles from 'Google Scholar'. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on interventions seeking to prevent postoperative delirium in adult patients were included. Data extraction and methodological quality assessment were performed using predefined data fields and scoring system. Meta-analysis was accomplished for studies that used similar strategies. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of postoperative delirium. We further tested whether interventions effective in preventing postoperative delirium shortened the length of hospital stay.

Results: We identified 38 RCTs with interventions ranging from perioperative managements to pharmacological, psychological or multicomponent interventions. Meta-analysis showed dexmedetomidine sedation was associated with less delirium compared to sedation produced by other drugs (two RCTs with 415 patients, pooled risk ratio (RR)=0.39; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.16 to 0.95). Both typical (three RCTs with 965 patients, RR=0.71; 95% CI=0.54 to 0.93) and atypical antipsychotics (three RCTs with 627 patients, RR=0.36; 95% CI=0.26 to 0.50) decreased delirium occurrence when compared to placebos. Multicomponent interventions (two RCTs with 325 patients, RR=0.71; 95% CI=0.58 to 0.86) were effective in preventing delirium. No difference in the incidences of delirium was found between: neuraxial and general anesthesia (four RCTs with 511 patients, RR=0.99; 95% CI=0.65 to 1.50); epidural and intravenous analgesia (three RCTs with 167 patients, RR=0.93; 95% CI=0.61 to 1.43) or acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and placebo (four RCTs with 242 patients, RR=0.95; 95% CI=0.63 to 1.44). Effective prevention of postoperative delirium did not shorten the length of hospital stay (10 RCTs with 1,636 patients, pooled SMD (standard mean difference)=-0.06; 95% CI=-0.16 to 0.04).

Conclusions: The included studies showed great inconsistencies in definition, incidence, severity and duration of postoperative delirium. Meta-analysis supported dexmedetomidine sedation, multicomponent interventions and antipsychotics were useful in preventing postoperative delirium.

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Interventions successful in preventing postoperative delirium failed to shorten the length of hospital stay. (A) Summary standard mean differences (SMDs) for the length of hospital stay between interventions with less delirium and interventions with more delirium. (B) Begg's funnel plot with effect measures (SMD) as a function of its standard error (SE) for the length of hospital stay.
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Figure 4: Interventions successful in preventing postoperative delirium failed to shorten the length of hospital stay. (A) Summary standard mean differences (SMDs) for the length of hospital stay between interventions with less delirium and interventions with more delirium. (B) Begg's funnel plot with effect measures (SMD) as a function of its standard error (SE) for the length of hospital stay.

Mentions: We identified 10 studies with 1,636 patients reporting both different incidences of postoperative delirium between the two interventions and inpatient time [25,26,35,36,40,41,44,47,52,54]. Meta-analysis using a fixed-effects model (χ2(9) = 12.1, P = 0.208, I2 = 25.6%) found no significant difference in the length of hospital stay between interventions with lower or higher incidences of postoperative delirium (pooled SMD = -0.06, 95% CI = -0.16 to 0.04, P = 0.159, Figure 4A). The pooled incidences based on the fixed-effects model were 16.1% for interventions with less delirium and 35.4% for interventions with more delirium. No significant publication bias was found by Begg's test (z = 0.54, P > /z/ = 0.592) and by visual inspection of the funnel plot (Figure 4B).


Strategies for prevention of postoperative delirium: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials.

Zhang H, Lu Y, Liu M, Zou Z, Wang L, Xu FY, Shi XY - Crit Care (2013)

Interventions successful in preventing postoperative delirium failed to shorten the length of hospital stay. (A) Summary standard mean differences (SMDs) for the length of hospital stay between interventions with less delirium and interventions with more delirium. (B) Begg's funnel plot with effect measures (SMD) as a function of its standard error (SE) for the length of hospital stay.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3672487&req=5

Figure 4: Interventions successful in preventing postoperative delirium failed to shorten the length of hospital stay. (A) Summary standard mean differences (SMDs) for the length of hospital stay between interventions with less delirium and interventions with more delirium. (B) Begg's funnel plot with effect measures (SMD) as a function of its standard error (SE) for the length of hospital stay.
Mentions: We identified 10 studies with 1,636 patients reporting both different incidences of postoperative delirium between the two interventions and inpatient time [25,26,35,36,40,41,44,47,52,54]. Meta-analysis using a fixed-effects model (χ2(9) = 12.1, P = 0.208, I2 = 25.6%) found no significant difference in the length of hospital stay between interventions with lower or higher incidences of postoperative delirium (pooled SMD = -0.06, 95% CI = -0.16 to 0.04, P = 0.159, Figure 4A). The pooled incidences based on the fixed-effects model were 16.1% for interventions with less delirium and 35.4% for interventions with more delirium. No significant publication bias was found by Begg's test (z = 0.54, P > /z/ = 0.592) and by visual inspection of the funnel plot (Figure 4B).

Bottom Line: The PRISMA statement guidelines were followed.Meta-analysis showed dexmedetomidine sedation was associated with less delirium compared to sedation produced by other drugs (two RCTs with 415 patients, pooled risk ratio (RR)=0.39; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.16 to 0.95).No difference in the incidences of delirium was found between: neuraxial and general anesthesia (four RCTs with 511 patients, RR=0.99; 95% CI=0.65 to 1.50); epidural and intravenous analgesia (three RCTs with 167 patients, RR=0.93; 95% CI=0.61 to 1.43) or acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and placebo (four RCTs with 242 patients, RR=0.95; 95% CI=0.63 to 1.44).

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The ideal measures to prevent postoperative delirium remain unestablished. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the significance of potential interventions.

Methods: The PRISMA statement guidelines were followed. Two researchers searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library for articles published in English before August 2012. Additional sources included reference lists from reviews and related articles from 'Google Scholar'. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on interventions seeking to prevent postoperative delirium in adult patients were included. Data extraction and methodological quality assessment were performed using predefined data fields and scoring system. Meta-analysis was accomplished for studies that used similar strategies. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of postoperative delirium. We further tested whether interventions effective in preventing postoperative delirium shortened the length of hospital stay.

Results: We identified 38 RCTs with interventions ranging from perioperative managements to pharmacological, psychological or multicomponent interventions. Meta-analysis showed dexmedetomidine sedation was associated with less delirium compared to sedation produced by other drugs (two RCTs with 415 patients, pooled risk ratio (RR)=0.39; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.16 to 0.95). Both typical (three RCTs with 965 patients, RR=0.71; 95% CI=0.54 to 0.93) and atypical antipsychotics (three RCTs with 627 patients, RR=0.36; 95% CI=0.26 to 0.50) decreased delirium occurrence when compared to placebos. Multicomponent interventions (two RCTs with 325 patients, RR=0.71; 95% CI=0.58 to 0.86) were effective in preventing delirium. No difference in the incidences of delirium was found between: neuraxial and general anesthesia (four RCTs with 511 patients, RR=0.99; 95% CI=0.65 to 1.50); epidural and intravenous analgesia (three RCTs with 167 patients, RR=0.93; 95% CI=0.61 to 1.43) or acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and placebo (four RCTs with 242 patients, RR=0.95; 95% CI=0.63 to 1.44). Effective prevention of postoperative delirium did not shorten the length of hospital stay (10 RCTs with 1,636 patients, pooled SMD (standard mean difference)=-0.06; 95% CI=-0.16 to 0.04).

Conclusions: The included studies showed great inconsistencies in definition, incidence, severity and duration of postoperative delirium. Meta-analysis supported dexmedetomidine sedation, multicomponent interventions and antipsychotics were useful in preventing postoperative delirium.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus