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Bacterial sex in dental plaque.

Olsen I, Tribble GD, Fiehn NE, Wang BY - J Oral Microbiol (2013)

Bottom Line: DNA transfer is considered bacterial sex, but the transfer is not parallel to processes that we associate with sex in higher organisms.The transferred DNA can be integrated or recombined in the recipient's chromosome or remain as an extrachromosomal inheritable element.The ability to transfer DNA is important for bacteria, making them better adapted to the harsh environment of the human mouth, and promoting their survival, virulence, and pathogenicity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral Biology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

ABSTRACT
Genes are transferred between bacteria in dental plaque by transduction, conjugation, and transformation. Membrane vesicles can also provide a mechanism for horizontal gene transfer. DNA transfer is considered bacterial sex, but the transfer is not parallel to processes that we associate with sex in higher organisms. Several examples of bacterial gene transfer in the oral cavity are given in this review. How frequently this occurs in dental plaque is not clear, but evidence suggests that it affects a number of the major genera present. It has been estimated that new sequences in genomes established through horizontal gene transfer can constitute up to 30% of bacterial genomes. Gene transfer can be both inter- and intrageneric, and it can also affect transient organisms. The transferred DNA can be integrated or recombined in the recipient's chromosome or remain as an extrachromosomal inheritable element. This can make dental plaque a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes. The ability to transfer DNA is important for bacteria, making them better adapted to the harsh environment of the human mouth, and promoting their survival, virulence, and pathogenicity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The degree of recombination between 93 isolates of P. gingivalis sampled in vivo from 15 single sites of ‘refractory’ periodontitis patients is illustrated by a SplitsTree graph with superimposed results of the eBurst analysis to the graph. Patient and site numbers are marked in bold. Several STs detected in each periodontal site are located in groups (circles and ellipses) except for patients 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, and 13, for whom only one ST was found per site. See text in Reference [40]. Courtesy of Morten Enersen.
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Figure 0004: The degree of recombination between 93 isolates of P. gingivalis sampled in vivo from 15 single sites of ‘refractory’ periodontitis patients is illustrated by a SplitsTree graph with superimposed results of the eBurst analysis to the graph. Patient and site numbers are marked in bold. Several STs detected in each periodontal site are located in groups (circles and ellipses) except for patients 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, and 13, for whom only one ST was found per site. See text in Reference [40]. Courtesy of Morten Enersen.

Mentions: A multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for P. gingivalis has been established (www.pubmlst.org/pgingivalis). It indicates a high degree of genetic diversity and a weakly clonal population structure comparable to that seen in Neisseria meningitidis (40) (Fig. 3). Multiple sequence types (STs) were detected in one site in several patients with ‘refractory’ periodontitis (Fig. 4). This reflected allelic variation in two housekeeping genes and recombination between different clones in vivo in subgingival plaque of the periodontal pocket (40). Accordingly, the genetic variation in P. gingivalis strains is considerable and reinforces the concept that exchange of genes occurs in subgingival plaque to improve the chances of P. gingivalis’ survival.


Bacterial sex in dental plaque.

Olsen I, Tribble GD, Fiehn NE, Wang BY - J Oral Microbiol (2013)

The degree of recombination between 93 isolates of P. gingivalis sampled in vivo from 15 single sites of ‘refractory’ periodontitis patients is illustrated by a SplitsTree graph with superimposed results of the eBurst analysis to the graph. Patient and site numbers are marked in bold. Several STs detected in each periodontal site are located in groups (circles and ellipses) except for patients 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, and 13, for whom only one ST was found per site. See text in Reference [40]. Courtesy of Morten Enersen.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3672468&req=5

Figure 0004: The degree of recombination between 93 isolates of P. gingivalis sampled in vivo from 15 single sites of ‘refractory’ periodontitis patients is illustrated by a SplitsTree graph with superimposed results of the eBurst analysis to the graph. Patient and site numbers are marked in bold. Several STs detected in each periodontal site are located in groups (circles and ellipses) except for patients 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, and 13, for whom only one ST was found per site. See text in Reference [40]. Courtesy of Morten Enersen.
Mentions: A multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for P. gingivalis has been established (www.pubmlst.org/pgingivalis). It indicates a high degree of genetic diversity and a weakly clonal population structure comparable to that seen in Neisseria meningitidis (40) (Fig. 3). Multiple sequence types (STs) were detected in one site in several patients with ‘refractory’ periodontitis (Fig. 4). This reflected allelic variation in two housekeeping genes and recombination between different clones in vivo in subgingival plaque of the periodontal pocket (40). Accordingly, the genetic variation in P. gingivalis strains is considerable and reinforces the concept that exchange of genes occurs in subgingival plaque to improve the chances of P. gingivalis’ survival.

Bottom Line: DNA transfer is considered bacterial sex, but the transfer is not parallel to processes that we associate with sex in higher organisms.The transferred DNA can be integrated or recombined in the recipient's chromosome or remain as an extrachromosomal inheritable element.The ability to transfer DNA is important for bacteria, making them better adapted to the harsh environment of the human mouth, and promoting their survival, virulence, and pathogenicity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral Biology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

ABSTRACT
Genes are transferred between bacteria in dental plaque by transduction, conjugation, and transformation. Membrane vesicles can also provide a mechanism for horizontal gene transfer. DNA transfer is considered bacterial sex, but the transfer is not parallel to processes that we associate with sex in higher organisms. Several examples of bacterial gene transfer in the oral cavity are given in this review. How frequently this occurs in dental plaque is not clear, but evidence suggests that it affects a number of the major genera present. It has been estimated that new sequences in genomes established through horizontal gene transfer can constitute up to 30% of bacterial genomes. Gene transfer can be both inter- and intrageneric, and it can also affect transient organisms. The transferred DNA can be integrated or recombined in the recipient's chromosome or remain as an extrachromosomal inheritable element. This can make dental plaque a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes. The ability to transfer DNA is important for bacteria, making them better adapted to the harsh environment of the human mouth, and promoting their survival, virulence, and pathogenicity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus