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Bacterial sex in dental plaque.

Olsen I, Tribble GD, Fiehn NE, Wang BY - J Oral Microbiol (2013)

Bottom Line: DNA transfer is considered bacterial sex, but the transfer is not parallel to processes that we associate with sex in higher organisms.The transferred DNA can be integrated or recombined in the recipient's chromosome or remain as an extrachromosomal inheritable element.The ability to transfer DNA is important for bacteria, making them better adapted to the harsh environment of the human mouth, and promoting their survival, virulence, and pathogenicity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral Biology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

ABSTRACT
Genes are transferred between bacteria in dental plaque by transduction, conjugation, and transformation. Membrane vesicles can also provide a mechanism for horizontal gene transfer. DNA transfer is considered bacterial sex, but the transfer is not parallel to processes that we associate with sex in higher organisms. Several examples of bacterial gene transfer in the oral cavity are given in this review. How frequently this occurs in dental plaque is not clear, but evidence suggests that it affects a number of the major genera present. It has been estimated that new sequences in genomes established through horizontal gene transfer can constitute up to 30% of bacterial genomes. Gene transfer can be both inter- and intrageneric, and it can also affect transient organisms. The transferred DNA can be integrated or recombined in the recipient's chromosome or remain as an extrachromosomal inheritable element. This can make dental plaque a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes. The ability to transfer DNA is important for bacteria, making them better adapted to the harsh environment of the human mouth, and promoting their survival, virulence, and pathogenicity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Transmission electron micrograph of a Leptotrichia buccalis cell with derived membrane vesicles (MVs) that provide an alternative mode of gene transfer. Bar=1 µm. Courtesy of Emenike R.K. Eribe.
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Figure 0001: Transmission electron micrograph of a Leptotrichia buccalis cell with derived membrane vesicles (MVs) that provide an alternative mode of gene transfer. Bar=1 µm. Courtesy of Emenike R.K. Eribe.

Mentions: Many Gram-negative bacteria, including bacteria in dental plaque, form and release membrane vesicles (MVs) (Fig. 1) during growth (17–20). Using Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a model system, Beveridge et al. (21) demonstrated that Gram-negative bacteria can segregate and package periplasmic components into MVs. These MVs can protect the genetic content that is packaged inside from harsh environmental conditions such as DNase digestion (20, 22). MVs from Gram-negative bacteria can fuse into the surfaces of other species, indicating the possibility of MVs as delivery vehicles for transferring genetic materials and virulence factors from donor to recipient (10, 18). Indeed, it has been reported that MVs transfer virulence genes to recipient Gram-negative bacteria of the same or different species (17, 19, 20, 22). Because of their small dimensions (approximately 20–100 nm) (20), MVs could easily reach inaccessible areas such as the interior of biofilms and transport protected DNA to other bacteria, even when the donors and recipients are not in direct contact. These studies suggest that MV release by Gram-negative bacteria represents a novel mechanism for the transfer of genetic materials by these bacteria.


Bacterial sex in dental plaque.

Olsen I, Tribble GD, Fiehn NE, Wang BY - J Oral Microbiol (2013)

Transmission electron micrograph of a Leptotrichia buccalis cell with derived membrane vesicles (MVs) that provide an alternative mode of gene transfer. Bar=1 µm. Courtesy of Emenike R.K. Eribe.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3672468&req=5

Figure 0001: Transmission electron micrograph of a Leptotrichia buccalis cell with derived membrane vesicles (MVs) that provide an alternative mode of gene transfer. Bar=1 µm. Courtesy of Emenike R.K. Eribe.
Mentions: Many Gram-negative bacteria, including bacteria in dental plaque, form and release membrane vesicles (MVs) (Fig. 1) during growth (17–20). Using Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a model system, Beveridge et al. (21) demonstrated that Gram-negative bacteria can segregate and package periplasmic components into MVs. These MVs can protect the genetic content that is packaged inside from harsh environmental conditions such as DNase digestion (20, 22). MVs from Gram-negative bacteria can fuse into the surfaces of other species, indicating the possibility of MVs as delivery vehicles for transferring genetic materials and virulence factors from donor to recipient (10, 18). Indeed, it has been reported that MVs transfer virulence genes to recipient Gram-negative bacteria of the same or different species (17, 19, 20, 22). Because of their small dimensions (approximately 20–100 nm) (20), MVs could easily reach inaccessible areas such as the interior of biofilms and transport protected DNA to other bacteria, even when the donors and recipients are not in direct contact. These studies suggest that MV release by Gram-negative bacteria represents a novel mechanism for the transfer of genetic materials by these bacteria.

Bottom Line: DNA transfer is considered bacterial sex, but the transfer is not parallel to processes that we associate with sex in higher organisms.The transferred DNA can be integrated or recombined in the recipient's chromosome or remain as an extrachromosomal inheritable element.The ability to transfer DNA is important for bacteria, making them better adapted to the harsh environment of the human mouth, and promoting their survival, virulence, and pathogenicity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral Biology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

ABSTRACT
Genes are transferred between bacteria in dental plaque by transduction, conjugation, and transformation. Membrane vesicles can also provide a mechanism for horizontal gene transfer. DNA transfer is considered bacterial sex, but the transfer is not parallel to processes that we associate with sex in higher organisms. Several examples of bacterial gene transfer in the oral cavity are given in this review. How frequently this occurs in dental plaque is not clear, but evidence suggests that it affects a number of the major genera present. It has been estimated that new sequences in genomes established through horizontal gene transfer can constitute up to 30% of bacterial genomes. Gene transfer can be both inter- and intrageneric, and it can also affect transient organisms. The transferred DNA can be integrated or recombined in the recipient's chromosome or remain as an extrachromosomal inheritable element. This can make dental plaque a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes. The ability to transfer DNA is important for bacteria, making them better adapted to the harsh environment of the human mouth, and promoting their survival, virulence, and pathogenicity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus