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Household air pollution in low- and middle-income countries: health risks and research priorities.

Martin WJ, Glass RI, Araj H, Balbus J, Collins FS, Curtis S, Diette GB, Elwood WN, Falk H, Hibberd PL, Keown SE, Mehta S, Patrick E, Rosenbaum J, Sapkota A, Tolunay HE, Bruce NG - PLoS Med. (2013)

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. wjmartin@mail.nih.gov

ABSTRACT

Household air pollution (HAP) from solid fuel (biomass or coal) combustion is the leading environmental cause of death and disability in the world.

Many governments, multinational companies and nongovernmental organizations are developing programs to promote access to improved stoves and clean fuels, but there is little demonstrated evidence of health benefits from most of these programs or technologies.

A stakeholder meeting hosted by U.S. government sponsors identified research gaps and priorities related to the health effects of HAP and unsafe stoves in seven areas (cancer; infections; cardiovascular disease; maternal, neonatal, and child health; respiratory disease; burns; and ocular disorders) and gaps in four cross-cutting areas that are relevant to research on HAP (exposure and biomarker assessment, women's empowerment, behavioral approaches, and program evaluation).

It is vital that researchers partner with implementing organizations and governments to evaluate the impacts of improved stove and fuel programs to identify and share evidence regarding the outcomes of the many implementation programs underway, including the socio-behavioral aspects of household energy use.

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HAP in urban and rural settings with examples of other confounding sources of pollutants.Multiple factors influencing household air pollution and personal exposure levels need to be considered for effective measurement of exposure in health research and evaluation studies, which will differ in urban vs. rural settings and may vary based on cultural practices, geography, and elevation. Each site of HAP must be carefully assessed for other potential sources of products of incomplete combustion that may confound household or personal monitoring of exposure.
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pmed-1001455-g001: HAP in urban and rural settings with examples of other confounding sources of pollutants.Multiple factors influencing household air pollution and personal exposure levels need to be considered for effective measurement of exposure in health research and evaluation studies, which will differ in urban vs. rural settings and may vary based on cultural practices, geography, and elevation. Each site of HAP must be carefully assessed for other potential sources of products of incomplete combustion that may confound household or personal monitoring of exposure.

Mentions: Exposure assessment must account for a complex set of factors (Figure 1) that result in large variations in actual exposure and dose through time, between individuals, and among settings. Exposure assessments used in cookstove studies have tended to use simple, often categorical or qualitative measures [22]–[25]. Because these measures cannot account for the high degree of uncertainty and variability in HAP exposures [26],[27], studies using these measures are limited in their ability to elucidate dose–response curves and to detect changes in health outcomes associated with differences in exposure with sufficient statistical power. Greater investment is needed to enhance the sophistication of exposure assessments, including more frequent and numerous samples and more rigorous characterization of the factors that influence exposure variability. Because the factors driving spatial and temporal variability are not identical across different locations, studies need to include the collection of relevant data for exposure variability and uncertainty for their study context, using consistent and compatible protocols, survey tools, and instrumentation.


Household air pollution in low- and middle-income countries: health risks and research priorities.

Martin WJ, Glass RI, Araj H, Balbus J, Collins FS, Curtis S, Diette GB, Elwood WN, Falk H, Hibberd PL, Keown SE, Mehta S, Patrick E, Rosenbaum J, Sapkota A, Tolunay HE, Bruce NG - PLoS Med. (2013)

HAP in urban and rural settings with examples of other confounding sources of pollutants.Multiple factors influencing household air pollution and personal exposure levels need to be considered for effective measurement of exposure in health research and evaluation studies, which will differ in urban vs. rural settings and may vary based on cultural practices, geography, and elevation. Each site of HAP must be carefully assessed for other potential sources of products of incomplete combustion that may confound household or personal monitoring of exposure.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3672215&req=5

pmed-1001455-g001: HAP in urban and rural settings with examples of other confounding sources of pollutants.Multiple factors influencing household air pollution and personal exposure levels need to be considered for effective measurement of exposure in health research and evaluation studies, which will differ in urban vs. rural settings and may vary based on cultural practices, geography, and elevation. Each site of HAP must be carefully assessed for other potential sources of products of incomplete combustion that may confound household or personal monitoring of exposure.
Mentions: Exposure assessment must account for a complex set of factors (Figure 1) that result in large variations in actual exposure and dose through time, between individuals, and among settings. Exposure assessments used in cookstove studies have tended to use simple, often categorical or qualitative measures [22]–[25]. Because these measures cannot account for the high degree of uncertainty and variability in HAP exposures [26],[27], studies using these measures are limited in their ability to elucidate dose–response curves and to detect changes in health outcomes associated with differences in exposure with sufficient statistical power. Greater investment is needed to enhance the sophistication of exposure assessments, including more frequent and numerous samples and more rigorous characterization of the factors that influence exposure variability. Because the factors driving spatial and temporal variability are not identical across different locations, studies need to include the collection of relevant data for exposure variability and uncertainty for their study context, using consistent and compatible protocols, survey tools, and instrumentation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. wjmartin@mail.nih.gov

ABSTRACT

Household air pollution (HAP) from solid fuel (biomass or coal) combustion is the leading environmental cause of death and disability in the world.

Many governments, multinational companies and nongovernmental organizations are developing programs to promote access to improved stoves and clean fuels, but there is little demonstrated evidence of health benefits from most of these programs or technologies.

A stakeholder meeting hosted by U.S. government sponsors identified research gaps and priorities related to the health effects of HAP and unsafe stoves in seven areas (cancer; infections; cardiovascular disease; maternal, neonatal, and child health; respiratory disease; burns; and ocular disorders) and gaps in four cross-cutting areas that are relevant to research on HAP (exposure and biomarker assessment, women's empowerment, behavioral approaches, and program evaluation).

It is vital that researchers partner with implementing organizations and governments to evaluate the impacts of improved stove and fuel programs to identify and share evidence regarding the outcomes of the many implementation programs underway, including the socio-behavioral aspects of household energy use.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus