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Lack of variation at phosphoglucose isomerase (pgi) in bumblebees: implications for conservation genetics studies.

Ellis JS, Turner LM, Knight ME - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: However, phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi) has been proposed as a useful functional marker in the conservation genetics of invertebrates.We here report very low levels of Pgi variation in bumblebees rendering this locus to be of little use as an adaptive marker in a conservation genetics context in this group.Potential explanations for this lack of variation are considered.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, Greater Manchester, United Kingdom. j.ellis@mmu.ac.uk

ABSTRACT
Assessing genetic variation underlying ecologically important traits is increasingly of interest and importance in population and conservation genetics. For some groups generally useful markers exist for examining the relative role of selection and drift in shaping genetic diversity e.g. the major histocompatibility complex in vertebrates and self-incompatibility loci in plants. For invertebrates there is no such generally useful locus. However, phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi) has been proposed as a useful functional marker in the conservation genetics of invertebrates. Where thermal microclimate varies, balanced polymorphisms may be maintained due to trade-offs between thermally stable and kinetically advantageous allelic forms. We here report very low levels of Pgi variation in bumblebees rendering this locus to be of little use as an adaptive marker in a conservation genetics context in this group. Potential explanations for this lack of variation are considered.

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Schematic diagram representing the proportion of Apis mellifera Pgi mRNA covered by Bombus Pgi coding region sequenced in this study (above) and proportion of predicted A. mellifera and B. terrestris phosphoglycerate mutase covered by Bombus Pgm coding regions sequenced in this study (below).Figures indicate the base positions in the Apis mRNA sequence where the Bombus sequence begins and ends.
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pone-0065600-g002: Schematic diagram representing the proportion of Apis mellifera Pgi mRNA covered by Bombus Pgi coding region sequenced in this study (above) and proportion of predicted A. mellifera and B. terrestris phosphoglycerate mutase covered by Bombus Pgm coding regions sequenced in this study (below).Figures indicate the base positions in the Apis mRNA sequence where the Bombus sequence begins and ends.

Mentions: Pgi variation was assessed across five species of bumblebees sampled across south-west England (Table 1, Figure 1), representing a range of demographic histories from abundant and widespread (Bombus lapidarius; B. pratorum; B.pascuorum) to declining and highly localised (B. monticola; B. humilis). B. pascuorum and B.lapidarius were also sampled from elsewhere in the UK as well as from continental Europe (B. pascuorum UK, 15 samples, France 9 samples; B. lapidarius UK 14 samples, France 10 samples). In total 64 individual (haploid) males were sampled. Total sequence lengths varied from 2365–2396 bp including 1356 bp of coding sequence in seven exons (partial coding region obtained only, Figure 2). For comparison we also sequenced another metabolic marker, phosphoglycerate mutase (Pgm) for which 962–978 bp of sequence were obtained containing 441 bp of coding sequence in two exons (Genbank accessions for both loci: JQ736528–574; JQ736618–645; KC311670–KC311706). For both loci no stop codons were identified in the inferred coding regions. Similarity of the Bombus sequences generated with existing Pgi and Pgm sequences was confirmed by BLAST searches using the NCBI database. Pgi sequences (coding region only) were highly similar to existing Hymenopteran mRNA sequences (predicted B. impatiens Pgi coverage 100%, e-value 0, max. identity 99%; Apis mellifera Pgi coverage 100%, e-value 0, max. identity 99%; Nasonia vitripennis Pgi coverage 98%, e-value 0, max. identity 75%). Pgm sequences (coding region only) were also highly similar to existing Hymenopteran sequences (predicted B. terrestris phosphoglycerate mutase coverage 100%, e-value 0, max. identity 98%; Apis cerana Pgm coverage 100%, e-value 2*10−145, max. identity 86%; Cotesia congregata (Braconidae) Pgm coverage 99%, e-value 2*10−84, max. identity 76%).


Lack of variation at phosphoglucose isomerase (pgi) in bumblebees: implications for conservation genetics studies.

Ellis JS, Turner LM, Knight ME - PLoS ONE (2013)

Schematic diagram representing the proportion of Apis mellifera Pgi mRNA covered by Bombus Pgi coding region sequenced in this study (above) and proportion of predicted A. mellifera and B. terrestris phosphoglycerate mutase covered by Bombus Pgm coding regions sequenced in this study (below).Figures indicate the base positions in the Apis mRNA sequence where the Bombus sequence begins and ends.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3672202&req=5

pone-0065600-g002: Schematic diagram representing the proportion of Apis mellifera Pgi mRNA covered by Bombus Pgi coding region sequenced in this study (above) and proportion of predicted A. mellifera and B. terrestris phosphoglycerate mutase covered by Bombus Pgm coding regions sequenced in this study (below).Figures indicate the base positions in the Apis mRNA sequence where the Bombus sequence begins and ends.
Mentions: Pgi variation was assessed across five species of bumblebees sampled across south-west England (Table 1, Figure 1), representing a range of demographic histories from abundant and widespread (Bombus lapidarius; B. pratorum; B.pascuorum) to declining and highly localised (B. monticola; B. humilis). B. pascuorum and B.lapidarius were also sampled from elsewhere in the UK as well as from continental Europe (B. pascuorum UK, 15 samples, France 9 samples; B. lapidarius UK 14 samples, France 10 samples). In total 64 individual (haploid) males were sampled. Total sequence lengths varied from 2365–2396 bp including 1356 bp of coding sequence in seven exons (partial coding region obtained only, Figure 2). For comparison we also sequenced another metabolic marker, phosphoglycerate mutase (Pgm) for which 962–978 bp of sequence were obtained containing 441 bp of coding sequence in two exons (Genbank accessions for both loci: JQ736528–574; JQ736618–645; KC311670–KC311706). For both loci no stop codons were identified in the inferred coding regions. Similarity of the Bombus sequences generated with existing Pgi and Pgm sequences was confirmed by BLAST searches using the NCBI database. Pgi sequences (coding region only) were highly similar to existing Hymenopteran mRNA sequences (predicted B. impatiens Pgi coverage 100%, e-value 0, max. identity 99%; Apis mellifera Pgi coverage 100%, e-value 0, max. identity 99%; Nasonia vitripennis Pgi coverage 98%, e-value 0, max. identity 75%). Pgm sequences (coding region only) were also highly similar to existing Hymenopteran sequences (predicted B. terrestris phosphoglycerate mutase coverage 100%, e-value 0, max. identity 98%; Apis cerana Pgm coverage 100%, e-value 2*10−145, max. identity 86%; Cotesia congregata (Braconidae) Pgm coverage 99%, e-value 2*10−84, max. identity 76%).

Bottom Line: However, phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi) has been proposed as a useful functional marker in the conservation genetics of invertebrates.We here report very low levels of Pgi variation in bumblebees rendering this locus to be of little use as an adaptive marker in a conservation genetics context in this group.Potential explanations for this lack of variation are considered.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, Greater Manchester, United Kingdom. j.ellis@mmu.ac.uk

ABSTRACT
Assessing genetic variation underlying ecologically important traits is increasingly of interest and importance in population and conservation genetics. For some groups generally useful markers exist for examining the relative role of selection and drift in shaping genetic diversity e.g. the major histocompatibility complex in vertebrates and self-incompatibility loci in plants. For invertebrates there is no such generally useful locus. However, phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi) has been proposed as a useful functional marker in the conservation genetics of invertebrates. Where thermal microclimate varies, balanced polymorphisms may be maintained due to trade-offs between thermally stable and kinetically advantageous allelic forms. We here report very low levels of Pgi variation in bumblebees rendering this locus to be of little use as an adaptive marker in a conservation genetics context in this group. Potential explanations for this lack of variation are considered.

Show MeSH