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Integrative phylogeography of Calotriton newts (Amphibia, Salamandridae), with special remarks on the conservation of the endangered Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi).

Valbuena-Ureña E, Amat F, Carranza S - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: SDM results suggest that tough environmental conditions on mountains tops during glacial periods, together with subsequent warmer periods could have prevented the contact between the two species.Within the critically endangered C. arnoldi, a high genetic structure is revealed despite its extremely small distribution range compared to C. asper.The genetic and morphological results are highly important for the ongoing conservation program of C. arnoldi and strongly justify the management of this species into at least two independent evolutionary significant units (eastern and western sectors) to guarantee the long-term population viability.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Unitat de Zoologia (Facultat de Biociències), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain. emiliojavier.valbuena@uab.cat

ABSTRACT
The genus Calotriton includes two species of newts highly adapted to live in cold and fast-flowing mountain springs. The Pyrenean brook newt (Calotriton asper), restricted to the Pyrenean region, and the Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi), endemic to the Montseny massif and one of the most endangered amphibian species in Europe. In the present manuscript, we use an integrative approach including species distribution modeling (SDM), molecular analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data and morphology to unravel the historical processes that have contributed to shaping the biogeography and genetic structure of the genus Calotriton, with special emphasis on the conservation of C. arnoldi. The results of the molecular analyses confirm that, despite having originated recently, being ecologically similar and geographically very close, there is no signal of hybridization between C. asper and C. arnoldi. SDM results suggest that tough environmental conditions on mountains tops during glacial periods, together with subsequent warmer periods could have prevented the contact between the two species. Within the critically endangered C. arnoldi, a high genetic structure is revealed despite its extremely small distribution range compared to C. asper. Haplotype networks, AMOVA and SAMOVA analyses suggest that two distinct groups of populations can be clearly differentiated with absence of gene flow. This is in concordance with morphological differentiation and correlates with its geographical distribution, as the two groups are situated on the eastern and western sides of a river valley that acts as a barrier. The genetic and morphological results are highly important for the ongoing conservation program of C. arnoldi and strongly justify the management of this species into at least two independent evolutionary significant units (eastern and western sectors) to guarantee the long-term population viability.

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Characteristic patterns of coloration of newts belonging to the two sectors of Calotriton arnoldi range.(A) Adult female from the eastern populations showing yellow spots found in 78.8% of the individuals, and (B) adult male from the western populations with the whitish margin of the snout.
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pone-0062542-g006: Characteristic patterns of coloration of newts belonging to the two sectors of Calotriton arnoldi range.(A) Adult female from the eastern populations showing yellow spots found in 78.8% of the individuals, and (B) adult male from the western populations with the whitish margin of the snout.

Mentions: Our analyses of coloration found striking differences between sectors defined by two traits: dorsal yellow spots and whitish margin of the snout (Figure 6). The first trait was never found in western populations (Chi-square test X21 = 106.312, P<0.001) and therefore is exclusive of the eastern populations. The coloration of the margin of snout is a new diagnostic character that is always present in males of the western sector, was found only in a female of the western sector, and it has never been found in male or female C. arnoldi of the eastern sector (Chi-square test X21 = 67.652, P<0.001).


Integrative phylogeography of Calotriton newts (Amphibia, Salamandridae), with special remarks on the conservation of the endangered Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi).

Valbuena-Ureña E, Amat F, Carranza S - PLoS ONE (2013)

Characteristic patterns of coloration of newts belonging to the two sectors of Calotriton arnoldi range.(A) Adult female from the eastern populations showing yellow spots found in 78.8% of the individuals, and (B) adult male from the western populations with the whitish margin of the snout.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3672179&req=5

pone-0062542-g006: Characteristic patterns of coloration of newts belonging to the two sectors of Calotriton arnoldi range.(A) Adult female from the eastern populations showing yellow spots found in 78.8% of the individuals, and (B) adult male from the western populations with the whitish margin of the snout.
Mentions: Our analyses of coloration found striking differences between sectors defined by two traits: dorsal yellow spots and whitish margin of the snout (Figure 6). The first trait was never found in western populations (Chi-square test X21 = 106.312, P<0.001) and therefore is exclusive of the eastern populations. The coloration of the margin of snout is a new diagnostic character that is always present in males of the western sector, was found only in a female of the western sector, and it has never been found in male or female C. arnoldi of the eastern sector (Chi-square test X21 = 67.652, P<0.001).

Bottom Line: SDM results suggest that tough environmental conditions on mountains tops during glacial periods, together with subsequent warmer periods could have prevented the contact between the two species.Within the critically endangered C. arnoldi, a high genetic structure is revealed despite its extremely small distribution range compared to C. asper.The genetic and morphological results are highly important for the ongoing conservation program of C. arnoldi and strongly justify the management of this species into at least two independent evolutionary significant units (eastern and western sectors) to guarantee the long-term population viability.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Unitat de Zoologia (Facultat de Biociències), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain. emiliojavier.valbuena@uab.cat

ABSTRACT
The genus Calotriton includes two species of newts highly adapted to live in cold and fast-flowing mountain springs. The Pyrenean brook newt (Calotriton asper), restricted to the Pyrenean region, and the Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi), endemic to the Montseny massif and one of the most endangered amphibian species in Europe. In the present manuscript, we use an integrative approach including species distribution modeling (SDM), molecular analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data and morphology to unravel the historical processes that have contributed to shaping the biogeography and genetic structure of the genus Calotriton, with special emphasis on the conservation of C. arnoldi. The results of the molecular analyses confirm that, despite having originated recently, being ecologically similar and geographically very close, there is no signal of hybridization between C. asper and C. arnoldi. SDM results suggest that tough environmental conditions on mountains tops during glacial periods, together with subsequent warmer periods could have prevented the contact between the two species. Within the critically endangered C. arnoldi, a high genetic structure is revealed despite its extremely small distribution range compared to C. asper. Haplotype networks, AMOVA and SAMOVA analyses suggest that two distinct groups of populations can be clearly differentiated with absence of gene flow. This is in concordance with morphological differentiation and correlates with its geographical distribution, as the two groups are situated on the eastern and western sides of a river valley that acts as a barrier. The genetic and morphological results are highly important for the ongoing conservation program of C. arnoldi and strongly justify the management of this species into at least two independent evolutionary significant units (eastern and western sectors) to guarantee the long-term population viability.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus