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Integrative phylogeography of Calotriton newts (Amphibia, Salamandridae), with special remarks on the conservation of the endangered Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi).

Valbuena-Ureña E, Amat F, Carranza S - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: SDM results suggest that tough environmental conditions on mountains tops during glacial periods, together with subsequent warmer periods could have prevented the contact between the two species.Within the critically endangered C. arnoldi, a high genetic structure is revealed despite its extremely small distribution range compared to C. asper.The genetic and morphological results are highly important for the ongoing conservation program of C. arnoldi and strongly justify the management of this species into at least two independent evolutionary significant units (eastern and western sectors) to guarantee the long-term population viability.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Unitat de Zoologia (Facultat de Biociències), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain. emiliojavier.valbuena@uab.cat

ABSTRACT
The genus Calotriton includes two species of newts highly adapted to live in cold and fast-flowing mountain springs. The Pyrenean brook newt (Calotriton asper), restricted to the Pyrenean region, and the Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi), endemic to the Montseny massif and one of the most endangered amphibian species in Europe. In the present manuscript, we use an integrative approach including species distribution modeling (SDM), molecular analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data and morphology to unravel the historical processes that have contributed to shaping the biogeography and genetic structure of the genus Calotriton, with special emphasis on the conservation of C. arnoldi. The results of the molecular analyses confirm that, despite having originated recently, being ecologically similar and geographically very close, there is no signal of hybridization between C. asper and C. arnoldi. SDM results suggest that tough environmental conditions on mountains tops during glacial periods, together with subsequent warmer periods could have prevented the contact between the two species. Within the critically endangered C. arnoldi, a high genetic structure is revealed despite its extremely small distribution range compared to C. asper. Haplotype networks, AMOVA and SAMOVA analyses suggest that two distinct groups of populations can be clearly differentiated with absence of gene flow. This is in concordance with morphological differentiation and correlates with its geographical distribution, as the two groups are situated on the eastern and western sides of a river valley that acts as a barrier. The genetic and morphological results are highly important for the ongoing conservation program of C. arnoldi and strongly justify the management of this species into at least two independent evolutionary significant units (eastern and western sectors) to guarantee the long-term population viability.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Discriminant canonical analysis scatterplot of males and females of Calotriton arnoldi from eastern and western sectors.Red squares and circles indicate eastern males and females, and blue squares and circles show western males and females, respectively. Black points are the mean values for each group.
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pone-0062542-g005: Discriminant canonical analysis scatterplot of males and females of Calotriton arnoldi from eastern and western sectors.Red squares and circles indicate eastern males and females, and blue squares and circles show western males and females, respectively. Black points are the mean values for each group.

Mentions: MANOVA analysis found sexual (Wilk's Lambda 8 152 = 0.143; P<0.0001) and population (Wilk's Lambda 8 152 = 0.576; P<0.0001) significant differences without interaction between these two factors (Wilk's Lambda 8 152 = 0.907; P = 0.058). A posthoc test for unequal size showed no significant differences among sexes or populations in SVL and LI while HL and TH were the only sexually discriminant variables (Table 6). The length of the two limbs, HW (with the only exception of the comparison between western and eastern females) and TL (with the only exception of the comparison between western females and eastern males) indicated population and sexual differences. The Discriminant analysis showed sexual separation based on the first canonic root (Figure 5): males have short and high tails, in comparison with females. Population differences were less marked and exclusively defined by the second canonic root. Males and females from eastern populations have longer limbs than western ones, while males from western populations have wider heads and longer tails than eastern ones.


Integrative phylogeography of Calotriton newts (Amphibia, Salamandridae), with special remarks on the conservation of the endangered Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi).

Valbuena-Ureña E, Amat F, Carranza S - PLoS ONE (2013)

Discriminant canonical analysis scatterplot of males and females of Calotriton arnoldi from eastern and western sectors.Red squares and circles indicate eastern males and females, and blue squares and circles show western males and females, respectively. Black points are the mean values for each group.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3672179&req=5

pone-0062542-g005: Discriminant canonical analysis scatterplot of males and females of Calotriton arnoldi from eastern and western sectors.Red squares and circles indicate eastern males and females, and blue squares and circles show western males and females, respectively. Black points are the mean values for each group.
Mentions: MANOVA analysis found sexual (Wilk's Lambda 8 152 = 0.143; P<0.0001) and population (Wilk's Lambda 8 152 = 0.576; P<0.0001) significant differences without interaction between these two factors (Wilk's Lambda 8 152 = 0.907; P = 0.058). A posthoc test for unequal size showed no significant differences among sexes or populations in SVL and LI while HL and TH were the only sexually discriminant variables (Table 6). The length of the two limbs, HW (with the only exception of the comparison between western and eastern females) and TL (with the only exception of the comparison between western females and eastern males) indicated population and sexual differences. The Discriminant analysis showed sexual separation based on the first canonic root (Figure 5): males have short and high tails, in comparison with females. Population differences were less marked and exclusively defined by the second canonic root. Males and females from eastern populations have longer limbs than western ones, while males from western populations have wider heads and longer tails than eastern ones.

Bottom Line: SDM results suggest that tough environmental conditions on mountains tops during glacial periods, together with subsequent warmer periods could have prevented the contact between the two species.Within the critically endangered C. arnoldi, a high genetic structure is revealed despite its extremely small distribution range compared to C. asper.The genetic and morphological results are highly important for the ongoing conservation program of C. arnoldi and strongly justify the management of this species into at least two independent evolutionary significant units (eastern and western sectors) to guarantee the long-term population viability.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Unitat de Zoologia (Facultat de Biociències), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain. emiliojavier.valbuena@uab.cat

ABSTRACT
The genus Calotriton includes two species of newts highly adapted to live in cold and fast-flowing mountain springs. The Pyrenean brook newt (Calotriton asper), restricted to the Pyrenean region, and the Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi), endemic to the Montseny massif and one of the most endangered amphibian species in Europe. In the present manuscript, we use an integrative approach including species distribution modeling (SDM), molecular analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data and morphology to unravel the historical processes that have contributed to shaping the biogeography and genetic structure of the genus Calotriton, with special emphasis on the conservation of C. arnoldi. The results of the molecular analyses confirm that, despite having originated recently, being ecologically similar and geographically very close, there is no signal of hybridization between C. asper and C. arnoldi. SDM results suggest that tough environmental conditions on mountains tops during glacial periods, together with subsequent warmer periods could have prevented the contact between the two species. Within the critically endangered C. arnoldi, a high genetic structure is revealed despite its extremely small distribution range compared to C. asper. Haplotype networks, AMOVA and SAMOVA analyses suggest that two distinct groups of populations can be clearly differentiated with absence of gene flow. This is in concordance with morphological differentiation and correlates with its geographical distribution, as the two groups are situated on the eastern and western sides of a river valley that acts as a barrier. The genetic and morphological results are highly important for the ongoing conservation program of C. arnoldi and strongly justify the management of this species into at least two independent evolutionary significant units (eastern and western sectors) to guarantee the long-term population viability.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus