Limits...
Integrative phylogeography of Calotriton newts (Amphibia, Salamandridae), with special remarks on the conservation of the endangered Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi).

Valbuena-Ureña E, Amat F, Carranza S - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: SDM results suggest that tough environmental conditions on mountains tops during glacial periods, together with subsequent warmer periods could have prevented the contact between the two species.Within the critically endangered C. arnoldi, a high genetic structure is revealed despite its extremely small distribution range compared to C. asper.The genetic and morphological results are highly important for the ongoing conservation program of C. arnoldi and strongly justify the management of this species into at least two independent evolutionary significant units (eastern and western sectors) to guarantee the long-term population viability.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Unitat de Zoologia (Facultat de Biociències), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain. emiliojavier.valbuena@uab.cat

ABSTRACT
The genus Calotriton includes two species of newts highly adapted to live in cold and fast-flowing mountain springs. The Pyrenean brook newt (Calotriton asper), restricted to the Pyrenean region, and the Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi), endemic to the Montseny massif and one of the most endangered amphibian species in Europe. In the present manuscript, we use an integrative approach including species distribution modeling (SDM), molecular analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data and morphology to unravel the historical processes that have contributed to shaping the biogeography and genetic structure of the genus Calotriton, with special emphasis on the conservation of C. arnoldi. The results of the molecular analyses confirm that, despite having originated recently, being ecologically similar and geographically very close, there is no signal of hybridization between C. asper and C. arnoldi. SDM results suggest that tough environmental conditions on mountains tops during glacial periods, together with subsequent warmer periods could have prevented the contact between the two species. Within the critically endangered C. arnoldi, a high genetic structure is revealed despite its extremely small distribution range compared to C. asper. Haplotype networks, AMOVA and SAMOVA analyses suggest that two distinct groups of populations can be clearly differentiated with absence of gene flow. This is in concordance with morphological differentiation and correlates with its geographical distribution, as the two groups are situated on the eastern and western sides of a river valley that acts as a barrier. The genetic and morphological results are highly important for the ongoing conservation program of C. arnoldi and strongly justify the management of this species into at least two independent evolutionary significant units (eastern and western sectors) to guarantee the long-term population viability.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Predicted distribution models of Calotriton asper.(A) Present distribution using climate and topographic variables, landcover and lithology. Last Glacial Maximum based on (B) CCSM model and (C) MIROC model, and (D) Last Interglacial distributions using climate variables and lithology. Warmer colors represent areas of high habitat suitability. Red marks and arrows indicate the Montseny Mountain Natural Park.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3672179&req=5

pone-0062542-g004: Predicted distribution models of Calotriton asper.(A) Present distribution using climate and topographic variables, landcover and lithology. Last Glacial Maximum based on (B) CCSM model and (C) MIROC model, and (D) Last Interglacial distributions using climate variables and lithology. Warmer colors represent areas of high habitat suitability. Red marks and arrows indicate the Montseny Mountain Natural Park.

Mentions: The predicted geographic distributions for C. asper under present and past conditions are shown in Figure 4. Maximum entropy modelling produced high predictive accuracy models, according to the average testing AUC for the present SDM using climate, topography, lithology and landcover variables (AUC  = 0.934±0.013). SDM inferred for the past conditions using climate and lithology also showed overall an adequate fit to the distributions. The distribution models based on the LI conditions presented an AUC value of 0.921±0.016, and over 0.92 based on LGM predictions (CCSM 0.924±0.016, MIROC 0.925±0.013). The AUC of these models were significantly higher than the -model AUCs (the 95th percentiles of the dataset were 0.618, 0.620, 0.629 and 0.619 for the present, CCSM, MIROC and LI, respectively). This indicates a good fit of the models.


Integrative phylogeography of Calotriton newts (Amphibia, Salamandridae), with special remarks on the conservation of the endangered Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi).

Valbuena-Ureña E, Amat F, Carranza S - PLoS ONE (2013)

Predicted distribution models of Calotriton asper.(A) Present distribution using climate and topographic variables, landcover and lithology. Last Glacial Maximum based on (B) CCSM model and (C) MIROC model, and (D) Last Interglacial distributions using climate variables and lithology. Warmer colors represent areas of high habitat suitability. Red marks and arrows indicate the Montseny Mountain Natural Park.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3672179&req=5

pone-0062542-g004: Predicted distribution models of Calotriton asper.(A) Present distribution using climate and topographic variables, landcover and lithology. Last Glacial Maximum based on (B) CCSM model and (C) MIROC model, and (D) Last Interglacial distributions using climate variables and lithology. Warmer colors represent areas of high habitat suitability. Red marks and arrows indicate the Montseny Mountain Natural Park.
Mentions: The predicted geographic distributions for C. asper under present and past conditions are shown in Figure 4. Maximum entropy modelling produced high predictive accuracy models, according to the average testing AUC for the present SDM using climate, topography, lithology and landcover variables (AUC  = 0.934±0.013). SDM inferred for the past conditions using climate and lithology also showed overall an adequate fit to the distributions. The distribution models based on the LI conditions presented an AUC value of 0.921±0.016, and over 0.92 based on LGM predictions (CCSM 0.924±0.016, MIROC 0.925±0.013). The AUC of these models were significantly higher than the -model AUCs (the 95th percentiles of the dataset were 0.618, 0.620, 0.629 and 0.619 for the present, CCSM, MIROC and LI, respectively). This indicates a good fit of the models.

Bottom Line: SDM results suggest that tough environmental conditions on mountains tops during glacial periods, together with subsequent warmer periods could have prevented the contact between the two species.Within the critically endangered C. arnoldi, a high genetic structure is revealed despite its extremely small distribution range compared to C. asper.The genetic and morphological results are highly important for the ongoing conservation program of C. arnoldi and strongly justify the management of this species into at least two independent evolutionary significant units (eastern and western sectors) to guarantee the long-term population viability.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Unitat de Zoologia (Facultat de Biociències), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain. emiliojavier.valbuena@uab.cat

ABSTRACT
The genus Calotriton includes two species of newts highly adapted to live in cold and fast-flowing mountain springs. The Pyrenean brook newt (Calotriton asper), restricted to the Pyrenean region, and the Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi), endemic to the Montseny massif and one of the most endangered amphibian species in Europe. In the present manuscript, we use an integrative approach including species distribution modeling (SDM), molecular analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data and morphology to unravel the historical processes that have contributed to shaping the biogeography and genetic structure of the genus Calotriton, with special emphasis on the conservation of C. arnoldi. The results of the molecular analyses confirm that, despite having originated recently, being ecologically similar and geographically very close, there is no signal of hybridization between C. asper and C. arnoldi. SDM results suggest that tough environmental conditions on mountains tops during glacial periods, together with subsequent warmer periods could have prevented the contact between the two species. Within the critically endangered C. arnoldi, a high genetic structure is revealed despite its extremely small distribution range compared to C. asper. Haplotype networks, AMOVA and SAMOVA analyses suggest that two distinct groups of populations can be clearly differentiated with absence of gene flow. This is in concordance with morphological differentiation and correlates with its geographical distribution, as the two groups are situated on the eastern and western sides of a river valley that acts as a barrier. The genetic and morphological results are highly important for the ongoing conservation program of C. arnoldi and strongly justify the management of this species into at least two independent evolutionary significant units (eastern and western sectors) to guarantee the long-term population viability.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus