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Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of percocypris (Cyprinidae, Teleostei).

Wang M, Yang JX, Chen XY - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: The results of Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses show that Percocypris is a strongly supported monophyletic group and that it is the sister group of Schizothorax.This study suggests that vicariance (due to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau modifying the large-scale morphologies of drainage basins in the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau) has played an important role in the speciation of the genus.Furthermore, external morphological characters (such as the length of the fins) and an internal trait (the position of pterygiophore) appear to be correlated with different habitats in rivers and the lake.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China.

ABSTRACT
Fierce predatory freshwater fishes, the species of Percocypris (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) inhabit large rivers or lakes, and have a specific distribution pattern. Only a single species or subspecies occurs in each large-scale drainage basin of the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. In this study, the molecular phylogenetic relationships for all but one of the described subspecies/species of Percocypris were investigated based on three mitochondrial genes (16S; COI; Cyt b) and one nuclear marker (Rag2). The results of Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses show that Percocypris is a strongly supported monophyletic group and that it is the sister group of Schizothorax. Combined with analyses of morphological characters, our results suggest that Percocypris needs to be reclassified, and we propose that six species be recognized, with corresponding distributions in five main drainages (including one lake). In addition, based on the results of the estimation of divergence times and ancestral drainages, we hypothesize that Percocypris likely originated in the early Miocene from a paleo-connected drainage system containing the contemporary main drainages of the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. This study suggests that vicariance (due to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau modifying the large-scale morphologies of drainage basins in the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau) has played an important role in the speciation of the genus. Furthermore, external morphological characters (such as the length of the fins) and an internal trait (the position of pterygiophore) appear to be correlated with different habitats in rivers and the lake.

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The origin and evolutionary scenario of Percocypris.Map (A) shows the time tree mapped on to the geography of southeast Qinhai-Tibetan Plateau. The nodal numbers are divergence times; the node circles show the ancestral drainages. Map (B) from Rüber et al. [14] show the hypothesized paleo-Red River drainage system of Clark et al. [60].
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pone-0061827-g005: The origin and evolutionary scenario of Percocypris.Map (A) shows the time tree mapped on to the geography of southeast Qinhai-Tibetan Plateau. The nodal numbers are divergence times; the node circles show the ancestral drainages. Map (B) from Rüber et al. [14] show the hypothesized paleo-Red River drainage system of Clark et al. [60].

Mentions: The results of divergence time and ancestral drainage estimations indicate that Percocypris probably originated in the early Miocene (17.56 Mya; Figure 5) from a single paleo-drainage that included current Upper Yangtze, Mekong, Salween, Upper Pearl, and probably Red rivers; this supports the hypothesis that original Upper Yangtze, Middle Yangtze, Upper Mekong and Upper Salween rivers drained together as major tributaries of the paleo-Red River drainage system [60]. Regarding the origin of Percocypris, it is noteworthy that our results strongly suggest that it may originate from a common ancestor with Schizothorax. This result is compatible with the hypothesis that Percocypris originated from a common ancestor with certain species of the Barbinae (e.g., [4]–[7]). The estimated divergence time of Percocypris and Schizothorax falls within the time range of the second uplift of the Tibetan Plateau (25–17 Mya; [61]–[64]).


Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of percocypris (Cyprinidae, Teleostei).

Wang M, Yang JX, Chen XY - PLoS ONE (2013)

The origin and evolutionary scenario of Percocypris.Map (A) shows the time tree mapped on to the geography of southeast Qinhai-Tibetan Plateau. The nodal numbers are divergence times; the node circles show the ancestral drainages. Map (B) from Rüber et al. [14] show the hypothesized paleo-Red River drainage system of Clark et al. [60].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3672144&req=5

pone-0061827-g005: The origin and evolutionary scenario of Percocypris.Map (A) shows the time tree mapped on to the geography of southeast Qinhai-Tibetan Plateau. The nodal numbers are divergence times; the node circles show the ancestral drainages. Map (B) from Rüber et al. [14] show the hypothesized paleo-Red River drainage system of Clark et al. [60].
Mentions: The results of divergence time and ancestral drainage estimations indicate that Percocypris probably originated in the early Miocene (17.56 Mya; Figure 5) from a single paleo-drainage that included current Upper Yangtze, Mekong, Salween, Upper Pearl, and probably Red rivers; this supports the hypothesis that original Upper Yangtze, Middle Yangtze, Upper Mekong and Upper Salween rivers drained together as major tributaries of the paleo-Red River drainage system [60]. Regarding the origin of Percocypris, it is noteworthy that our results strongly suggest that it may originate from a common ancestor with Schizothorax. This result is compatible with the hypothesis that Percocypris originated from a common ancestor with certain species of the Barbinae (e.g., [4]–[7]). The estimated divergence time of Percocypris and Schizothorax falls within the time range of the second uplift of the Tibetan Plateau (25–17 Mya; [61]–[64]).

Bottom Line: The results of Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses show that Percocypris is a strongly supported monophyletic group and that it is the sister group of Schizothorax.This study suggests that vicariance (due to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau modifying the large-scale morphologies of drainage basins in the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau) has played an important role in the speciation of the genus.Furthermore, external morphological characters (such as the length of the fins) and an internal trait (the position of pterygiophore) appear to be correlated with different habitats in rivers and the lake.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China.

ABSTRACT
Fierce predatory freshwater fishes, the species of Percocypris (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) inhabit large rivers or lakes, and have a specific distribution pattern. Only a single species or subspecies occurs in each large-scale drainage basin of the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. In this study, the molecular phylogenetic relationships for all but one of the described subspecies/species of Percocypris were investigated based on three mitochondrial genes (16S; COI; Cyt b) and one nuclear marker (Rag2). The results of Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses show that Percocypris is a strongly supported monophyletic group and that it is the sister group of Schizothorax. Combined with analyses of morphological characters, our results suggest that Percocypris needs to be reclassified, and we propose that six species be recognized, with corresponding distributions in five main drainages (including one lake). In addition, based on the results of the estimation of divergence times and ancestral drainages, we hypothesize that Percocypris likely originated in the early Miocene from a paleo-connected drainage system containing the contemporary main drainages of the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. This study suggests that vicariance (due to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau modifying the large-scale morphologies of drainage basins in the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau) has played an important role in the speciation of the genus. Furthermore, external morphological characters (such as the length of the fins) and an internal trait (the position of pterygiophore) appear to be correlated with different habitats in rivers and the lake.

Show MeSH