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Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of percocypris (Cyprinidae, Teleostei).

Wang M, Yang JX, Chen XY - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: The results of Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses show that Percocypris is a strongly supported monophyletic group and that it is the sister group of Schizothorax.This study suggests that vicariance (due to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau modifying the large-scale morphologies of drainage basins in the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau) has played an important role in the speciation of the genus.Furthermore, external morphological characters (such as the length of the fins) and an internal trait (the position of pterygiophore) appear to be correlated with different habitats in rivers and the lake.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China.

ABSTRACT
Fierce predatory freshwater fishes, the species of Percocypris (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) inhabit large rivers or lakes, and have a specific distribution pattern. Only a single species or subspecies occurs in each large-scale drainage basin of the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. In this study, the molecular phylogenetic relationships for all but one of the described subspecies/species of Percocypris were investigated based on three mitochondrial genes (16S; COI; Cyt b) and one nuclear marker (Rag2). The results of Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses show that Percocypris is a strongly supported monophyletic group and that it is the sister group of Schizothorax. Combined with analyses of morphological characters, our results suggest that Percocypris needs to be reclassified, and we propose that six species be recognized, with corresponding distributions in five main drainages (including one lake). In addition, based on the results of the estimation of divergence times and ancestral drainages, we hypothesize that Percocypris likely originated in the early Miocene from a paleo-connected drainage system containing the contemporary main drainages of the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. This study suggests that vicariance (due to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau modifying the large-scale morphologies of drainage basins in the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau) has played an important role in the speciation of the genus. Furthermore, external morphological characters (such as the length of the fins) and an internal trait (the position of pterygiophore) appear to be correlated with different habitats in rivers and the lake.

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Scatter plot of the first principal component (PC1) vs. the second principal component (PC2).The species from Fuxian Lake (red pentagons), Upper Pearl River (blue diamonds), Upper Yangtze River (orange dots), Mekong River (black triangles) and Salween River (green squares).
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pone-0061827-g004: Scatter plot of the first principal component (PC1) vs. the second principal component (PC2).The species from Fuxian Lake (red pentagons), Upper Pearl River (blue diamonds), Upper Yangtze River (orange dots), Mekong River (black triangles) and Salween River (green squares).

Mentions: The results of the PCA of external morphological measurements are presented in Table 2 and Figure 4. The first three principal components explained a cumulative 75.627% of total observed variance with 56.743%, 12.328% and 6.556% explained by the first principal component (PC1), the second principal component (PC2) and the third principal component (PC3), respectively (Table 2). Furthermore, the length of fins, the distance between the snout and each fin, the length of barbels (maxilla barbel and rictal barbel), the width between posterior nares and the scale of the head (PL, DFL, PPTL, PTFL, PPVL, PVFL, AFL, MCL, UICL, LLCL, HD, HW, IPONW, MBL and RBL; Table 2) contributed most to PC1. As shown in Figure 4, the PCA indicated five distinct clusters corresponding to species from four river basins (Upper Pearl, Upper Yangtze, Mekong and Salween rivers) and Fuxian Lake.


Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of percocypris (Cyprinidae, Teleostei).

Wang M, Yang JX, Chen XY - PLoS ONE (2013)

Scatter plot of the first principal component (PC1) vs. the second principal component (PC2).The species from Fuxian Lake (red pentagons), Upper Pearl River (blue diamonds), Upper Yangtze River (orange dots), Mekong River (black triangles) and Salween River (green squares).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3672144&req=5

pone-0061827-g004: Scatter plot of the first principal component (PC1) vs. the second principal component (PC2).The species from Fuxian Lake (red pentagons), Upper Pearl River (blue diamonds), Upper Yangtze River (orange dots), Mekong River (black triangles) and Salween River (green squares).
Mentions: The results of the PCA of external morphological measurements are presented in Table 2 and Figure 4. The first three principal components explained a cumulative 75.627% of total observed variance with 56.743%, 12.328% and 6.556% explained by the first principal component (PC1), the second principal component (PC2) and the third principal component (PC3), respectively (Table 2). Furthermore, the length of fins, the distance between the snout and each fin, the length of barbels (maxilla barbel and rictal barbel), the width between posterior nares and the scale of the head (PL, DFL, PPTL, PTFL, PPVL, PVFL, AFL, MCL, UICL, LLCL, HD, HW, IPONW, MBL and RBL; Table 2) contributed most to PC1. As shown in Figure 4, the PCA indicated five distinct clusters corresponding to species from four river basins (Upper Pearl, Upper Yangtze, Mekong and Salween rivers) and Fuxian Lake.

Bottom Line: The results of Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses show that Percocypris is a strongly supported monophyletic group and that it is the sister group of Schizothorax.This study suggests that vicariance (due to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau modifying the large-scale morphologies of drainage basins in the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau) has played an important role in the speciation of the genus.Furthermore, external morphological characters (such as the length of the fins) and an internal trait (the position of pterygiophore) appear to be correlated with different habitats in rivers and the lake.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China.

ABSTRACT
Fierce predatory freshwater fishes, the species of Percocypris (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) inhabit large rivers or lakes, and have a specific distribution pattern. Only a single species or subspecies occurs in each large-scale drainage basin of the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. In this study, the molecular phylogenetic relationships for all but one of the described subspecies/species of Percocypris were investigated based on three mitochondrial genes (16S; COI; Cyt b) and one nuclear marker (Rag2). The results of Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses show that Percocypris is a strongly supported monophyletic group and that it is the sister group of Schizothorax. Combined with analyses of morphological characters, our results suggest that Percocypris needs to be reclassified, and we propose that six species be recognized, with corresponding distributions in five main drainages (including one lake). In addition, based on the results of the estimation of divergence times and ancestral drainages, we hypothesize that Percocypris likely originated in the early Miocene from a paleo-connected drainage system containing the contemporary main drainages of the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. This study suggests that vicariance (due to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau modifying the large-scale morphologies of drainage basins in the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau) has played an important role in the speciation of the genus. Furthermore, external morphological characters (such as the length of the fins) and an internal trait (the position of pterygiophore) appear to be correlated with different habitats in rivers and the lake.

Show MeSH