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Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of percocypris (Cyprinidae, Teleostei).

Wang M, Yang JX, Chen XY - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: The results of Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses show that Percocypris is a strongly supported monophyletic group and that it is the sister group of Schizothorax.This study suggests that vicariance (due to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau modifying the large-scale morphologies of drainage basins in the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau) has played an important role in the speciation of the genus.Furthermore, external morphological characters (such as the length of the fins) and an internal trait (the position of pterygiophore) appear to be correlated with different habitats in rivers and the lake.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China.

ABSTRACT
Fierce predatory freshwater fishes, the species of Percocypris (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) inhabit large rivers or lakes, and have a specific distribution pattern. Only a single species or subspecies occurs in each large-scale drainage basin of the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. In this study, the molecular phylogenetic relationships for all but one of the described subspecies/species of Percocypris were investigated based on three mitochondrial genes (16S; COI; Cyt b) and one nuclear marker (Rag2). The results of Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses show that Percocypris is a strongly supported monophyletic group and that it is the sister group of Schizothorax. Combined with analyses of morphological characters, our results suggest that Percocypris needs to be reclassified, and we propose that six species be recognized, with corresponding distributions in five main drainages (including one lake). In addition, based on the results of the estimation of divergence times and ancestral drainages, we hypothesize that Percocypris likely originated in the early Miocene from a paleo-connected drainage system containing the contemporary main drainages of the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. This study suggests that vicariance (due to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau modifying the large-scale morphologies of drainage basins in the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau) has played an important role in the speciation of the genus. Furthermore, external morphological characters (such as the length of the fins) and an internal trait (the position of pterygiophore) appear to be correlated with different habitats in rivers and the lake.

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External morphological measurements and internal skeletal traits.(A) External morphological measurements used for morphometric analysis in this study: 1, standard length (SL); 2, head length (HL); 3, snout length (SNL); 4, eye diameter (ED); 5, prenaris length (IPNW); 6, eye-ball diameter (EBD); 7, caudal peduncle length (CPL); AD, predorsal length (PL); DE, dorsal-fin base length (DBL); DF, dorsal fin length (DFL); AW, prepectoral length (PPTL); WV, pectoral-fin base length (PTBL); WU, pectoral fin length (PTFL); AT, prepelvic length (PPVL); TS, pelvic-fin base length (PVBL); TR, pelvic fin length (PVFL); AQ, preanal length (PAL); QP, anal-fin base length (ABL); QO, anal fin length (AFL); HN, caudal peduncle depth (CPD); IK, upper lobe of caudal fin length (UICL); ML, lower lobe of caudal fin length (LLCL); CX, head depth (HD); BY, upper jaw length (UJL); AY, lower jaw length (LJL); the other measurements followed Chu & Cui [5] and Zhao & Zhang [19]: body depth(BD); caudal peduncle depth at the terminal of Anal fin base (CPDTA); middle caudal fin length (MCL); head width (HW); interorbital width (IOW); width between posterior naris (IPONW); mouth width (MW); maxilla barbel length (MBL); rictal barbel length (RBL). (B) Internal skeletal traits analyzed in this study: Ns, neural spine; Tv, trunk vertebrae; Cv, caudal vertebrae; Pt1, 1st dorsal pterygiophore; Pt2, 2nd dorsal pterygiophore.
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pone-0061827-g002: External morphological measurements and internal skeletal traits.(A) External morphological measurements used for morphometric analysis in this study: 1, standard length (SL); 2, head length (HL); 3, snout length (SNL); 4, eye diameter (ED); 5, prenaris length (IPNW); 6, eye-ball diameter (EBD); 7, caudal peduncle length (CPL); AD, predorsal length (PL); DE, dorsal-fin base length (DBL); DF, dorsal fin length (DFL); AW, prepectoral length (PPTL); WV, pectoral-fin base length (PTBL); WU, pectoral fin length (PTFL); AT, prepelvic length (PPVL); TS, pelvic-fin base length (PVBL); TR, pelvic fin length (PVFL); AQ, preanal length (PAL); QP, anal-fin base length (ABL); QO, anal fin length (AFL); HN, caudal peduncle depth (CPD); IK, upper lobe of caudal fin length (UICL); ML, lower lobe of caudal fin length (LLCL); CX, head depth (HD); BY, upper jaw length (UJL); AY, lower jaw length (LJL); the other measurements followed Chu & Cui [5] and Zhao & Zhang [19]: body depth(BD); caudal peduncle depth at the terminal of Anal fin base (CPDTA); middle caudal fin length (MCL); head width (HW); interorbital width (IOW); width between posterior naris (IPONW); mouth width (MW); maxilla barbel length (MBL); rictal barbel length (RBL). (B) Internal skeletal traits analyzed in this study: Ns, neural spine; Tv, trunk vertebrae; Cv, caudal vertebrae; Pt1, 1st dorsal pterygiophore; Pt2, 2nd dorsal pterygiophore.

Mentions: For the external morphological analysis, 38 individuals of Percocypris were measured for 34 morphological variables. These were recorded to the nearest 0.1 mm using digital calipers following the methods of Chu & Cui [5] and Zhao & Zhang [19]. The 34 morphological measurements are shown in Figure 2. Summary statistics for all the morphological characters were calculated with the statistical program SPSS 17.0 (SPSS for Windows, Chicago, IL, USA) for the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) after scaling according to standard length.


Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of percocypris (Cyprinidae, Teleostei).

Wang M, Yang JX, Chen XY - PLoS ONE (2013)

External morphological measurements and internal skeletal traits.(A) External morphological measurements used for morphometric analysis in this study: 1, standard length (SL); 2, head length (HL); 3, snout length (SNL); 4, eye diameter (ED); 5, prenaris length (IPNW); 6, eye-ball diameter (EBD); 7, caudal peduncle length (CPL); AD, predorsal length (PL); DE, dorsal-fin base length (DBL); DF, dorsal fin length (DFL); AW, prepectoral length (PPTL); WV, pectoral-fin base length (PTBL); WU, pectoral fin length (PTFL); AT, prepelvic length (PPVL); TS, pelvic-fin base length (PVBL); TR, pelvic fin length (PVFL); AQ, preanal length (PAL); QP, anal-fin base length (ABL); QO, anal fin length (AFL); HN, caudal peduncle depth (CPD); IK, upper lobe of caudal fin length (UICL); ML, lower lobe of caudal fin length (LLCL); CX, head depth (HD); BY, upper jaw length (UJL); AY, lower jaw length (LJL); the other measurements followed Chu & Cui [5] and Zhao & Zhang [19]: body depth(BD); caudal peduncle depth at the terminal of Anal fin base (CPDTA); middle caudal fin length (MCL); head width (HW); interorbital width (IOW); width between posterior naris (IPONW); mouth width (MW); maxilla barbel length (MBL); rictal barbel length (RBL). (B) Internal skeletal traits analyzed in this study: Ns, neural spine; Tv, trunk vertebrae; Cv, caudal vertebrae; Pt1, 1st dorsal pterygiophore; Pt2, 2nd dorsal pterygiophore.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3672144&req=5

pone-0061827-g002: External morphological measurements and internal skeletal traits.(A) External morphological measurements used for morphometric analysis in this study: 1, standard length (SL); 2, head length (HL); 3, snout length (SNL); 4, eye diameter (ED); 5, prenaris length (IPNW); 6, eye-ball diameter (EBD); 7, caudal peduncle length (CPL); AD, predorsal length (PL); DE, dorsal-fin base length (DBL); DF, dorsal fin length (DFL); AW, prepectoral length (PPTL); WV, pectoral-fin base length (PTBL); WU, pectoral fin length (PTFL); AT, prepelvic length (PPVL); TS, pelvic-fin base length (PVBL); TR, pelvic fin length (PVFL); AQ, preanal length (PAL); QP, anal-fin base length (ABL); QO, anal fin length (AFL); HN, caudal peduncle depth (CPD); IK, upper lobe of caudal fin length (UICL); ML, lower lobe of caudal fin length (LLCL); CX, head depth (HD); BY, upper jaw length (UJL); AY, lower jaw length (LJL); the other measurements followed Chu & Cui [5] and Zhao & Zhang [19]: body depth(BD); caudal peduncle depth at the terminal of Anal fin base (CPDTA); middle caudal fin length (MCL); head width (HW); interorbital width (IOW); width between posterior naris (IPONW); mouth width (MW); maxilla barbel length (MBL); rictal barbel length (RBL). (B) Internal skeletal traits analyzed in this study: Ns, neural spine; Tv, trunk vertebrae; Cv, caudal vertebrae; Pt1, 1st dorsal pterygiophore; Pt2, 2nd dorsal pterygiophore.
Mentions: For the external morphological analysis, 38 individuals of Percocypris were measured for 34 morphological variables. These were recorded to the nearest 0.1 mm using digital calipers following the methods of Chu & Cui [5] and Zhao & Zhang [19]. The 34 morphological measurements are shown in Figure 2. Summary statistics for all the morphological characters were calculated with the statistical program SPSS 17.0 (SPSS for Windows, Chicago, IL, USA) for the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) after scaling according to standard length.

Bottom Line: The results of Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses show that Percocypris is a strongly supported monophyletic group and that it is the sister group of Schizothorax.This study suggests that vicariance (due to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau modifying the large-scale morphologies of drainage basins in the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau) has played an important role in the speciation of the genus.Furthermore, external morphological characters (such as the length of the fins) and an internal trait (the position of pterygiophore) appear to be correlated with different habitats in rivers and the lake.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China.

ABSTRACT
Fierce predatory freshwater fishes, the species of Percocypris (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) inhabit large rivers or lakes, and have a specific distribution pattern. Only a single species or subspecies occurs in each large-scale drainage basin of the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. In this study, the molecular phylogenetic relationships for all but one of the described subspecies/species of Percocypris were investigated based on three mitochondrial genes (16S; COI; Cyt b) and one nuclear marker (Rag2). The results of Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses show that Percocypris is a strongly supported monophyletic group and that it is the sister group of Schizothorax. Combined with analyses of morphological characters, our results suggest that Percocypris needs to be reclassified, and we propose that six species be recognized, with corresponding distributions in five main drainages (including one lake). In addition, based on the results of the estimation of divergence times and ancestral drainages, we hypothesize that Percocypris likely originated in the early Miocene from a paleo-connected drainage system containing the contemporary main drainages of the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. This study suggests that vicariance (due to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau modifying the large-scale morphologies of drainage basins in the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau) has played an important role in the speciation of the genus. Furthermore, external morphological characters (such as the length of the fins) and an internal trait (the position of pterygiophore) appear to be correlated with different habitats in rivers and the lake.

Show MeSH