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Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of percocypris (Cyprinidae, Teleostei).

Wang M, Yang JX, Chen XY - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: The results of Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses show that Percocypris is a strongly supported monophyletic group and that it is the sister group of Schizothorax.This study suggests that vicariance (due to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau modifying the large-scale morphologies of drainage basins in the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau) has played an important role in the speciation of the genus.Furthermore, external morphological characters (such as the length of the fins) and an internal trait (the position of pterygiophore) appear to be correlated with different habitats in rivers and the lake.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China.

ABSTRACT
Fierce predatory freshwater fishes, the species of Percocypris (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) inhabit large rivers or lakes, and have a specific distribution pattern. Only a single species or subspecies occurs in each large-scale drainage basin of the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. In this study, the molecular phylogenetic relationships for all but one of the described subspecies/species of Percocypris were investigated based on three mitochondrial genes (16S; COI; Cyt b) and one nuclear marker (Rag2). The results of Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses show that Percocypris is a strongly supported monophyletic group and that it is the sister group of Schizothorax. Combined with analyses of morphological characters, our results suggest that Percocypris needs to be reclassified, and we propose that six species be recognized, with corresponding distributions in five main drainages (including one lake). In addition, based on the results of the estimation of divergence times and ancestral drainages, we hypothesize that Percocypris likely originated in the early Miocene from a paleo-connected drainage system containing the contemporary main drainages of the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. This study suggests that vicariance (due to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau modifying the large-scale morphologies of drainage basins in the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau) has played an important role in the speciation of the genus. Furthermore, external morphological characters (such as the length of the fins) and an internal trait (the position of pterygiophore) appear to be correlated with different habitats in rivers and the lake.

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Distributions of Percocypris and molecular samples.Red lines indicate major river basins; blue arrows denote general direction of water flow; green lines indicate boundaries. (Right map) Extant distributions of Percocypris based on literature records and localities of specimens: dots – Upper Yangtze River, five-pointed star – Fuxian Lake, diamonds – Upper Pearl River, triangles – Mekong River, squares – Salween River, cross – Red River; (Left map) Geographic distribution of molecular samples of Percocypris used in this study: orange dots – Upper Yangtze River, red five-pointed star – Fuxian Lake, purple diamond – Upper Pearl River, pink triangles – Mekong River, green square – Salween River.
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pone-0061827-g001: Distributions of Percocypris and molecular samples.Red lines indicate major river basins; blue arrows denote general direction of water flow; green lines indicate boundaries. (Right map) Extant distributions of Percocypris based on literature records and localities of specimens: dots – Upper Yangtze River, five-pointed star – Fuxian Lake, diamonds – Upper Pearl River, triangles – Mekong River, squares – Salween River, cross – Red River; (Left map) Geographic distribution of molecular samples of Percocypris used in this study: orange dots – Upper Yangtze River, red five-pointed star – Fuxian Lake, purple diamond – Upper Pearl River, pink triangles – Mekong River, green square – Salween River.

Mentions: Thirty eight individuals of Percocypris were measured in the morphometric study and forty three specimens of Percocypris were examined for the osteological features. Thirty four specimens of Percocypris were used in the molecular analysis, representing three subspecies of the nominal P. pingi from Fuxian Lake, Upper Pearl River, Upper Yangtze River, Mekong River and Salween River (the collection sites are shown in Figure 1). The specimens were collected by electro-fishing and/or seining mainly from 2003 to 2011, and were subsequently deposited in KIZ. Although many localities including the type locality (the city of Laocai in Vietnam) of Red River basin were sampled numerous times at different seasons every year, we failed to acquire any specimens of P. tchangi. Following recent studies involving Percocypris[10]–[12], Schizothorax meridionalis, S. waltoni, Onychostoma simum, Spinibarbus denticulatus, Barbonymus schwanenfeldii, Sinocyclocheilus tingi, Cyprinus pellegrini, Carassius auratus, Tor douronensis, Labeo stoliczkae and Danio rerio were included as outgroup taxa. All of the ingroup members (except P. tchangi) and three outgroup taxa (Spinibarbus denticulatus, Cyprinus pellegrini, Labeo stoliczkae) were sequenced in this study, and the sequences deposited in GenBank (Listed in Table S1 along with sequences of other outgroup taxa obtained from GenBank).


Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of percocypris (Cyprinidae, Teleostei).

Wang M, Yang JX, Chen XY - PLoS ONE (2013)

Distributions of Percocypris and molecular samples.Red lines indicate major river basins; blue arrows denote general direction of water flow; green lines indicate boundaries. (Right map) Extant distributions of Percocypris based on literature records and localities of specimens: dots – Upper Yangtze River, five-pointed star – Fuxian Lake, diamonds – Upper Pearl River, triangles – Mekong River, squares – Salween River, cross – Red River; (Left map) Geographic distribution of molecular samples of Percocypris used in this study: orange dots – Upper Yangtze River, red five-pointed star – Fuxian Lake, purple diamond – Upper Pearl River, pink triangles – Mekong River, green square – Salween River.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3672144&req=5

pone-0061827-g001: Distributions of Percocypris and molecular samples.Red lines indicate major river basins; blue arrows denote general direction of water flow; green lines indicate boundaries. (Right map) Extant distributions of Percocypris based on literature records and localities of specimens: dots – Upper Yangtze River, five-pointed star – Fuxian Lake, diamonds – Upper Pearl River, triangles – Mekong River, squares – Salween River, cross – Red River; (Left map) Geographic distribution of molecular samples of Percocypris used in this study: orange dots – Upper Yangtze River, red five-pointed star – Fuxian Lake, purple diamond – Upper Pearl River, pink triangles – Mekong River, green square – Salween River.
Mentions: Thirty eight individuals of Percocypris were measured in the morphometric study and forty three specimens of Percocypris were examined for the osteological features. Thirty four specimens of Percocypris were used in the molecular analysis, representing three subspecies of the nominal P. pingi from Fuxian Lake, Upper Pearl River, Upper Yangtze River, Mekong River and Salween River (the collection sites are shown in Figure 1). The specimens were collected by electro-fishing and/or seining mainly from 2003 to 2011, and were subsequently deposited in KIZ. Although many localities including the type locality (the city of Laocai in Vietnam) of Red River basin were sampled numerous times at different seasons every year, we failed to acquire any specimens of P. tchangi. Following recent studies involving Percocypris[10]–[12], Schizothorax meridionalis, S. waltoni, Onychostoma simum, Spinibarbus denticulatus, Barbonymus schwanenfeldii, Sinocyclocheilus tingi, Cyprinus pellegrini, Carassius auratus, Tor douronensis, Labeo stoliczkae and Danio rerio were included as outgroup taxa. All of the ingroup members (except P. tchangi) and three outgroup taxa (Spinibarbus denticulatus, Cyprinus pellegrini, Labeo stoliczkae) were sequenced in this study, and the sequences deposited in GenBank (Listed in Table S1 along with sequences of other outgroup taxa obtained from GenBank).

Bottom Line: The results of Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses show that Percocypris is a strongly supported monophyletic group and that it is the sister group of Schizothorax.This study suggests that vicariance (due to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau modifying the large-scale morphologies of drainage basins in the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau) has played an important role in the speciation of the genus.Furthermore, external morphological characters (such as the length of the fins) and an internal trait (the position of pterygiophore) appear to be correlated with different habitats in rivers and the lake.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China.

ABSTRACT
Fierce predatory freshwater fishes, the species of Percocypris (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) inhabit large rivers or lakes, and have a specific distribution pattern. Only a single species or subspecies occurs in each large-scale drainage basin of the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. In this study, the molecular phylogenetic relationships for all but one of the described subspecies/species of Percocypris were investigated based on three mitochondrial genes (16S; COI; Cyt b) and one nuclear marker (Rag2). The results of Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses show that Percocypris is a strongly supported monophyletic group and that it is the sister group of Schizothorax. Combined with analyses of morphological characters, our results suggest that Percocypris needs to be reclassified, and we propose that six species be recognized, with corresponding distributions in five main drainages (including one lake). In addition, based on the results of the estimation of divergence times and ancestral drainages, we hypothesize that Percocypris likely originated in the early Miocene from a paleo-connected drainage system containing the contemporary main drainages of the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. This study suggests that vicariance (due to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau modifying the large-scale morphologies of drainage basins in the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau) has played an important role in the speciation of the genus. Furthermore, external morphological characters (such as the length of the fins) and an internal trait (the position of pterygiophore) appear to be correlated with different habitats in rivers and the lake.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus