Limits...
Behavioural disturbances in a temperate fish exposed to sustained high-CO2 levels.

Jutfelt F, Bresolin de Souza K, Vuylsteke A, Sturve J - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: Here we show several severe behavioural disturbances, including effects on boldness, exploratory behaviour, lateralisation, and learning in a temperate fish, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).We observed the effects on adult sticklebacks, a species known to be tolerant to other environmental stressors.The severity of disturbances and the possibility of a serious behavioural problem for fish across the globe is cause for concern.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. fredrik.jutfelt@bioenv.gu.se

ABSTRACT
As atmospheric CO2 levels rise, the CO2 concentration in ocean surface waters increases through a process commonly referred to as ocean acidification. Recently, surprising behavioural modifications has been detected in the early life stages of tropical coral reef fish exposed to ocean acidification-relevant CO2 concentrations, but it has been unclear if this effect could occur in temperate waters. Here we show several severe behavioural disturbances, including effects on boldness, exploratory behaviour, lateralisation, and learning in a temperate fish, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). The behavioural effects were consistent throughout the exposure period and increased in effect size with exposure time. We observed the effects on adult sticklebacks, a species known to be tolerant to other environmental stressors. Our findings suggest that behavioural abnormalities that stem from CO2 exposure are not restricted to sensitive tropical species or early life stages and may therefore affect fish on a global scale. The severity of disturbances and the possibility of a serious behavioural problem for fish across the globe is cause for concern.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

View from above of the double T-chamber used for lateralization tests.A turning choice is manually recorded every time the fish leave the central channel and enter one of the side channels. The use of a double T minimizes handling of the fish as multiple choice events can be performed by only gently encouraging the fish back along the channel.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3672104&req=5

pone-0065825-g001: View from above of the double T-chamber used for lateralization tests.A turning choice is manually recorded every time the fish leave the central channel and enter one of the side channels. The use of a double T minimizes handling of the fish as multiple choice events can be performed by only gently encouraging the fish back along the channel.

Mentions: Fishes were individually introduced into a double T-chamber (dimensions: 50 cm long with a 9 cm wide double T-channel (figure 1), according to Domenici et al. 2012) and gently encouraged by a plastic rod to move forward until a left or right turning choice was made. The procedure was repeated twelve times for each of 20 fish at day twenty, and twenty times for each of 25 fish at day 40. The purpose of increasing the number of turning events and n at day 40 was to reduce variance and increase statistical power. The relative and absolute lateralization indexes were calculated according to Domenici et al. 2012.


Behavioural disturbances in a temperate fish exposed to sustained high-CO2 levels.

Jutfelt F, Bresolin de Souza K, Vuylsteke A, Sturve J - PLoS ONE (2013)

View from above of the double T-chamber used for lateralization tests.A turning choice is manually recorded every time the fish leave the central channel and enter one of the side channels. The use of a double T minimizes handling of the fish as multiple choice events can be performed by only gently encouraging the fish back along the channel.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3672104&req=5

pone-0065825-g001: View from above of the double T-chamber used for lateralization tests.A turning choice is manually recorded every time the fish leave the central channel and enter one of the side channels. The use of a double T minimizes handling of the fish as multiple choice events can be performed by only gently encouraging the fish back along the channel.
Mentions: Fishes were individually introduced into a double T-chamber (dimensions: 50 cm long with a 9 cm wide double T-channel (figure 1), according to Domenici et al. 2012) and gently encouraged by a plastic rod to move forward until a left or right turning choice was made. The procedure was repeated twelve times for each of 20 fish at day twenty, and twenty times for each of 25 fish at day 40. The purpose of increasing the number of turning events and n at day 40 was to reduce variance and increase statistical power. The relative and absolute lateralization indexes were calculated according to Domenici et al. 2012.

Bottom Line: Here we show several severe behavioural disturbances, including effects on boldness, exploratory behaviour, lateralisation, and learning in a temperate fish, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).We observed the effects on adult sticklebacks, a species known to be tolerant to other environmental stressors.The severity of disturbances and the possibility of a serious behavioural problem for fish across the globe is cause for concern.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. fredrik.jutfelt@bioenv.gu.se

ABSTRACT
As atmospheric CO2 levels rise, the CO2 concentration in ocean surface waters increases through a process commonly referred to as ocean acidification. Recently, surprising behavioural modifications has been detected in the early life stages of tropical coral reef fish exposed to ocean acidification-relevant CO2 concentrations, but it has been unclear if this effect could occur in temperate waters. Here we show several severe behavioural disturbances, including effects on boldness, exploratory behaviour, lateralisation, and learning in a temperate fish, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). The behavioural effects were consistent throughout the exposure period and increased in effect size with exposure time. We observed the effects on adult sticklebacks, a species known to be tolerant to other environmental stressors. Our findings suggest that behavioural abnormalities that stem from CO2 exposure are not restricted to sensitive tropical species or early life stages and may therefore affect fish on a global scale. The severity of disturbances and the possibility of a serious behavioural problem for fish across the globe is cause for concern.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus