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A remarkable synergistic effect at the transcriptomic level in peach fruits doubly infected by prunus necrotic ringspot virus and peach latent mosaic viroid.

Herranz MC, Niehl A, Rosales M, Fiore N, Zamorano A, Granell A, Pallas V - Virol. J. (2013)

Bottom Line: Our results identify a novel synergistic effect of PLMVd and PNRSV on the transcriptome of peach fruits.We demonstrate that mixed infections, which occur frequently in field conditions, result in a more complex transcriptional response than that observed in single infections.These field studies can help to fully understand plant-pathogen interactions and to develop appropriate crop protection strategies.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Valencia 46022, Spain. carhergor@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Background: Microarray profiling is a powerful technique to investigate expression changes of large amounts of genes in response to specific environmental conditions. The majority of the studies investigating gene expression changes in virus-infected plants are limited to interactions between a virus and a model host plant, which usually is Arabidopsis thaliana or Nicotiana benthamiana. In the present work, we performed microarray profiling to explore changes in the expression profile of field-grown Prunus persica (peach) originating from Chile upon single and double infection with Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) and Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd), worldwide natural pathogens of peach trees.

Results: Upon single PLMVd or PNRSV infection, the number of statistically significant gene expression changes was relatively low. By contrast, doubly-infected fruits presented a high number of differentially regulated genes. Among these, down-regulated genes were prevalent. Functional categorization of the gene expression changes upon double PLMVd and PNRSV infection revealed protein modification and degradation as the functional category with the highest percentage of repressed genes whereas induced genes encoded mainly proteins related to phosphate, C-compound and carbohydrate metabolism and also protein modification. Overrepresentation analysis upon double infection with PLMVd and PNRSV revealed specific functional categories over- and underrepresented among the repressed genes indicating active counter-defense mechanisms of the pathogens during infection.

Conclusions: Our results identify a novel synergistic effect of PLMVd and PNRSV on the transcriptome of peach fruits. We demonstrate that mixed infections, which occur frequently in field conditions, result in a more complex transcriptional response than that observed in single infections. Thus, our data demonstrate for the first time that the simultaneous infection of a viroid and a plant virus synergistically affect the host transcriptome in infected peach fruits. These field studies can help to fully understand plant-pathogen interactions and to develop appropriate crop protection strategies.

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Comparison of the amount of virus/viroid in infected plants by non-isotopic molecular hybridization. Crude extracts of infected peaches (capital letters from A to H) were dotted onto nylon membranes in 10-fold dilutions and hybridized to PNRSV and PLMVd probes. Numbers at the top of the figure represent the amount of analyzed RNA in nanograms (ng). Chemiluminiscent detection was carried out after 15- min exposure.
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Figure 2: Comparison of the amount of virus/viroid in infected plants by non-isotopic molecular hybridization. Crude extracts of infected peaches (capital letters from A to H) were dotted onto nylon membranes in 10-fold dilutions and hybridized to PNRSV and PLMVd probes. Numbers at the top of the figure represent the amount of analyzed RNA in nanograms (ng). Chemiluminiscent detection was carried out after 15- min exposure.

Mentions: To determine the concentration of PNRSV and/or PLMVd in peach fruits, serial dilutions of each total RNA preparation were blotted onto a nylon membrane. The RNA samples were analyzed using specific digoxigenin-labelled riboprobes [27,28]. The concentration of either PLMVd or PNRSV (Figure 2: samples A, B, C, D and I, J, K and L respectively) was very similar among the singly infected samples reaching in both cases a detection limit of 0.3 ng/μL. In the mixed infections (samples E, F, G and H) a slight increase in the accumulation of both pathogens was observed (Figure 2 and Additional file 1: Figure S1).


A remarkable synergistic effect at the transcriptomic level in peach fruits doubly infected by prunus necrotic ringspot virus and peach latent mosaic viroid.

Herranz MC, Niehl A, Rosales M, Fiore N, Zamorano A, Granell A, Pallas V - Virol. J. (2013)

Comparison of the amount of virus/viroid in infected plants by non-isotopic molecular hybridization. Crude extracts of infected peaches (capital letters from A to H) were dotted onto nylon membranes in 10-fold dilutions and hybridized to PNRSV and PLMVd probes. Numbers at the top of the figure represent the amount of analyzed RNA in nanograms (ng). Chemiluminiscent detection was carried out after 15- min exposure.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3672095&req=5

Figure 2: Comparison of the amount of virus/viroid in infected plants by non-isotopic molecular hybridization. Crude extracts of infected peaches (capital letters from A to H) were dotted onto nylon membranes in 10-fold dilutions and hybridized to PNRSV and PLMVd probes. Numbers at the top of the figure represent the amount of analyzed RNA in nanograms (ng). Chemiluminiscent detection was carried out after 15- min exposure.
Mentions: To determine the concentration of PNRSV and/or PLMVd in peach fruits, serial dilutions of each total RNA preparation were blotted onto a nylon membrane. The RNA samples were analyzed using specific digoxigenin-labelled riboprobes [27,28]. The concentration of either PLMVd or PNRSV (Figure 2: samples A, B, C, D and I, J, K and L respectively) was very similar among the singly infected samples reaching in both cases a detection limit of 0.3 ng/μL. In the mixed infections (samples E, F, G and H) a slight increase in the accumulation of both pathogens was observed (Figure 2 and Additional file 1: Figure S1).

Bottom Line: Our results identify a novel synergistic effect of PLMVd and PNRSV on the transcriptome of peach fruits.We demonstrate that mixed infections, which occur frequently in field conditions, result in a more complex transcriptional response than that observed in single infections.These field studies can help to fully understand plant-pathogen interactions and to develop appropriate crop protection strategies.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Valencia 46022, Spain. carhergor@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Background: Microarray profiling is a powerful technique to investigate expression changes of large amounts of genes in response to specific environmental conditions. The majority of the studies investigating gene expression changes in virus-infected plants are limited to interactions between a virus and a model host plant, which usually is Arabidopsis thaliana or Nicotiana benthamiana. In the present work, we performed microarray profiling to explore changes in the expression profile of field-grown Prunus persica (peach) originating from Chile upon single and double infection with Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) and Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd), worldwide natural pathogens of peach trees.

Results: Upon single PLMVd or PNRSV infection, the number of statistically significant gene expression changes was relatively low. By contrast, doubly-infected fruits presented a high number of differentially regulated genes. Among these, down-regulated genes were prevalent. Functional categorization of the gene expression changes upon double PLMVd and PNRSV infection revealed protein modification and degradation as the functional category with the highest percentage of repressed genes whereas induced genes encoded mainly proteins related to phosphate, C-compound and carbohydrate metabolism and also protein modification. Overrepresentation analysis upon double infection with PLMVd and PNRSV revealed specific functional categories over- and underrepresented among the repressed genes indicating active counter-defense mechanisms of the pathogens during infection.

Conclusions: Our results identify a novel synergistic effect of PLMVd and PNRSV on the transcriptome of peach fruits. We demonstrate that mixed infections, which occur frequently in field conditions, result in a more complex transcriptional response than that observed in single infections. Thus, our data demonstrate for the first time that the simultaneous infection of a viroid and a plant virus synergistically affect the host transcriptome in infected peach fruits. These field studies can help to fully understand plant-pathogen interactions and to develop appropriate crop protection strategies.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus