Limits...
Comparison of sugar content for ionic liquid pretreated Douglas-fir woodchips and forestry residues.

Socha AM, Plummer SP, Stavila V, Simmons BA, Singh S - Biotechnol Biofuels (2013)

Bottom Line: The development of affordable woody biomass feedstocks represents a significant opportunity in the development of cellulosic biofuels.X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the pretreated cellulose was less crystalline after IL pretreatment as compared to untreated control samples.These results indicate that forestry residues may be a more viable feedstock than previously thought for the production of biofuels.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Deconstruction Division, Joint BioEnergy Institute, 5885 Hollis Avenue, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA. ssingh@lbl.gov.

ABSTRACT

Background: The development of affordable woody biomass feedstocks represents a significant opportunity in the development of cellulosic biofuels. Primary woodchips produced by forest mills are considered an ideal feedstock, but the prices they command on the market are currently too expensive for biorefineries. In comparison, forestry residues represent a potential low-cost input but are considered a more challenging feedstock for sugar production due to complexities in composition and potential contamination arising from soil that may be present. We compare the sugar yields, changes in composition in Douglas-fir woodchips and forestry residues after pretreatment using ionic liquids and enzymatic saccharification in order to determine if this approach can efficiently liberate fermentable sugars.

Results: These samples were either mechanically milled through a 2 mm mesh or pretreated as received with the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [C2mim][OAc] at 120°C and 160°C. IL pretreatment of Douglas-fir woodchips and forestry residues resulted in approximately 71-92% glucose yields after enzymatic saccharification. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the pretreated cellulose was less crystalline after IL pretreatment as compared to untreated control samples. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2D-NMR) revealed changes in lignin and hemicellulose structure and composition as a function of pretreatment. Mass balances of sugar and lignin streams for both the Douglas-fir woodchips and forestry residues throughout the pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification processes are presented.

Conclusions: While the highest sugar yields were observed with the Douglas-fir woodchips, reasonably high sugar yields were obtained from forestry residues after ionic liquid pretreatment. Structural changes to lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose in the woodchips and forestry residues of Douglas-fir after [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment are analyzed by XRD and 2D-NMR, and indicate that significant changes occurred. Irrespective of the particle sizes used in this study, ionic liquid pretreatment successfully allowed high glucose yields after enzymatic saccharification. These results indicate that forestry residues may be a more viable feedstock than previously thought for the production of biofuels.

No MeSH data available.


Comparison of enzymatic saccharificaiton of untreated and ionic liquid pretreated Douglas-fir woodchips (A) and forestry residues (B). Biomass loading = 100 g/L, enzyme loading = 20 mg CTec2 protein/g glucan and 4.25 mg HTec2 protein/g mannan.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3672072&req=5

Figure 2: Comparison of enzymatic saccharificaiton of untreated and ionic liquid pretreated Douglas-fir woodchips (A) and forestry residues (B). Biomass loading = 100 g/L, enzyme loading = 20 mg CTec2 protein/g glucan and 4.25 mg HTec2 protein/g mannan.

Mentions: Pretreatment with [C2mim][OAc] substantially increased enzymatic saccharification yields of both the Douglas-fir woodchips and forestry residues as compared to untreated controls. Biomass precipitated from IL pretreatment reactions with antisolvent was washed, lyophilized and used directly in enzymatic saccharification reactions. Figure 2 indicates that glucose yields from 160°C IL pretreated samples reached 82% and 87% for 2 mm-milled and un-milled samples of the Douglas-fir woodchips, respectively, after 72 hr of enzymatic saccharification. Samples pretreated at 120°C yielded slightly less glucose, 71% and 78%, from 2 mm-milled and un-milled samples, respectively. The forestry residue samples pretreated at 160°C also produced high glucose yields after enzymatic saccharification for 72 hr. The 2 mm-milled sample yielded 92% glucose as compared to the un-milled sample, which gave 85%. When samples were pretreated at 120°C saccharification yields were slightly lowered to 75% and 71% for 2 mm-milled and un-milled forestry residue samples, respectively. These data are not uncommon when comparing to other feedstocks, such as Eucalyptus, after IL pretreatment using [C2mim][OAc] [9,25].


Comparison of sugar content for ionic liquid pretreated Douglas-fir woodchips and forestry residues.

Socha AM, Plummer SP, Stavila V, Simmons BA, Singh S - Biotechnol Biofuels (2013)

Comparison of enzymatic saccharificaiton of untreated and ionic liquid pretreated Douglas-fir woodchips (A) and forestry residues (B). Biomass loading = 100 g/L, enzyme loading = 20 mg CTec2 protein/g glucan and 4.25 mg HTec2 protein/g mannan.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3672072&req=5

Figure 2: Comparison of enzymatic saccharificaiton of untreated and ionic liquid pretreated Douglas-fir woodchips (A) and forestry residues (B). Biomass loading = 100 g/L, enzyme loading = 20 mg CTec2 protein/g glucan and 4.25 mg HTec2 protein/g mannan.
Mentions: Pretreatment with [C2mim][OAc] substantially increased enzymatic saccharification yields of both the Douglas-fir woodchips and forestry residues as compared to untreated controls. Biomass precipitated from IL pretreatment reactions with antisolvent was washed, lyophilized and used directly in enzymatic saccharification reactions. Figure 2 indicates that glucose yields from 160°C IL pretreated samples reached 82% and 87% for 2 mm-milled and un-milled samples of the Douglas-fir woodchips, respectively, after 72 hr of enzymatic saccharification. Samples pretreated at 120°C yielded slightly less glucose, 71% and 78%, from 2 mm-milled and un-milled samples, respectively. The forestry residue samples pretreated at 160°C also produced high glucose yields after enzymatic saccharification for 72 hr. The 2 mm-milled sample yielded 92% glucose as compared to the un-milled sample, which gave 85%. When samples were pretreated at 120°C saccharification yields were slightly lowered to 75% and 71% for 2 mm-milled and un-milled forestry residue samples, respectively. These data are not uncommon when comparing to other feedstocks, such as Eucalyptus, after IL pretreatment using [C2mim][OAc] [9,25].

Bottom Line: The development of affordable woody biomass feedstocks represents a significant opportunity in the development of cellulosic biofuels.X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the pretreated cellulose was less crystalline after IL pretreatment as compared to untreated control samples.These results indicate that forestry residues may be a more viable feedstock than previously thought for the production of biofuels.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Deconstruction Division, Joint BioEnergy Institute, 5885 Hollis Avenue, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA. ssingh@lbl.gov.

ABSTRACT

Background: The development of affordable woody biomass feedstocks represents a significant opportunity in the development of cellulosic biofuels. Primary woodchips produced by forest mills are considered an ideal feedstock, but the prices they command on the market are currently too expensive for biorefineries. In comparison, forestry residues represent a potential low-cost input but are considered a more challenging feedstock for sugar production due to complexities in composition and potential contamination arising from soil that may be present. We compare the sugar yields, changes in composition in Douglas-fir woodchips and forestry residues after pretreatment using ionic liquids and enzymatic saccharification in order to determine if this approach can efficiently liberate fermentable sugars.

Results: These samples were either mechanically milled through a 2 mm mesh or pretreated as received with the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [C2mim][OAc] at 120°C and 160°C. IL pretreatment of Douglas-fir woodchips and forestry residues resulted in approximately 71-92% glucose yields after enzymatic saccharification. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the pretreated cellulose was less crystalline after IL pretreatment as compared to untreated control samples. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2D-NMR) revealed changes in lignin and hemicellulose structure and composition as a function of pretreatment. Mass balances of sugar and lignin streams for both the Douglas-fir woodchips and forestry residues throughout the pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification processes are presented.

Conclusions: While the highest sugar yields were observed with the Douglas-fir woodchips, reasonably high sugar yields were obtained from forestry residues after ionic liquid pretreatment. Structural changes to lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose in the woodchips and forestry residues of Douglas-fir after [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment are analyzed by XRD and 2D-NMR, and indicate that significant changes occurred. Irrespective of the particle sizes used in this study, ionic liquid pretreatment successfully allowed high glucose yields after enzymatic saccharification. These results indicate that forestry residues may be a more viable feedstock than previously thought for the production of biofuels.

No MeSH data available.