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The influence of early exposure to vitamin D for development of diseases later in life.

Jacobsen R, Abrahamsen B, Bauerek M, Holst C, Jensen CB, Knop J, Raymond K, Rasmussen LB, Stougaard M, Sørensen TI, Vaag AA, Heitmann BL - BMC Public Health (2013)

Bottom Line: The Danish National databases assure that there are a sufficient number of individuals to verify any vitamin D effects during different gestation phases.The results of the study will contribute to our current understanding of the significance of supplementation with vitamin D.Finally, the results of the study will justify the debate of Danish health authorities whether to resume vitamin D supplementation policies.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Preventive Medicine, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospitals - a part of Copenhagen University Hospital, Nordre Fasanvej 57, DK-2000 Frederiksberg, Denmark.

ABSTRACT

Background: Vitamin D deficiency is common among otherwise healthy pregnant women and may have consequences for them as well as the early development and long-term health of their children. However, the importance of maternal vitamin D status on offspring health later in life has not been widely studied. The present study includes an in-depth examination of the influence of exposure to vitamin D early in life for development of fractures of the wrist, arm and clavicle; obesity, and type 1 diabetes (T1D) during child- and adulthood.

Methods/design: The study is based on the fact that in 1961 fortifying margarine with vitamin D became mandatory in Denmark and in 1972 low fat milk fortification was allowed. Apart from determining the influences of exposure prior to conception and during prenatal life, we will examine the importance of vitamin D exposure during specific seasons and trimesters, by comparing disease incidence among individuals born before and after fortification. The Danish National databases assure that there are a sufficient number of individuals to verify any vitamin D effects during different gestation phases. Additionally, a validated method will be used to determine neonatal vitamin D status using stored dried blood spots (DBS) from individuals who developed the aforementioned disease entities as adults and their time and gender-matched controls.

Discussion: The results of the study will contribute to our current understanding of the significance of supplementation with vitamin D. More specifically, they will enable new research in related fields, including interventional research designed to assess supplementation needs for different subgroups of pregnant women. Also, other health outcomes can subsequently be studied to generate multiple health research opportunities involving vitamin D. Finally, the results of the study will justify the debate of Danish health authorities whether to resume vitamin D supplementation policies.

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Study cohorts. The figure provides examples of designs for examining the effects of vitamin D fortification on development of diseases for a follow-up period of up to 50ὕyears. The birth (grey boxes with allowance for short “wash-out period” in between) and follow-up years (arrows) of individuals from subgroups exposed before and after birth are given in relation to initiation or termination of vitamin D fortification.
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Figure 1: Study cohorts. The figure provides examples of designs for examining the effects of vitamin D fortification on development of diseases for a follow-up period of up to 50ὕyears. The birth (grey boxes with allowance for short “wash-out period” in between) and follow-up years (arrows) of individuals from subgroups exposed before and after birth are given in relation to initiation or termination of vitamin D fortification.

Mentions: In Denmark, from 1961 to 1985 vitamin D fortification of margarine was mandatory (1.25ὕμg/100ὕg), and from 1972 to 1976 fortification of low fat milk (2.5-3.8ὕμg/100ὕgὕmilk) was permitted. The vitamin D fortification of low fat milk was not mandatory and therefore not all low fat milk distributed in Denmark in the time period was fortified with vitamin D. Unfortunately, there are no national statistics indicating the proportion of milk consumed that was fortified with vitamin D. Nevertheless, the two well-defined time periods of vitamin D fortification provide a natural framework for comparing the effects of early exposure to vitamin D on the development of diseases later in life amongst exposed and non-exposed adjacent birth cohorts (Figure 1).


The influence of early exposure to vitamin D for development of diseases later in life.

Jacobsen R, Abrahamsen B, Bauerek M, Holst C, Jensen CB, Knop J, Raymond K, Rasmussen LB, Stougaard M, Sørensen TI, Vaag AA, Heitmann BL - BMC Public Health (2013)

Study cohorts. The figure provides examples of designs for examining the effects of vitamin D fortification on development of diseases for a follow-up period of up to 50ὕyears. The birth (grey boxes with allowance for short “wash-out period” in between) and follow-up years (arrows) of individuals from subgroups exposed before and after birth are given in relation to initiation or termination of vitamin D fortification.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3672018&req=5

Figure 1: Study cohorts. The figure provides examples of designs for examining the effects of vitamin D fortification on development of diseases for a follow-up period of up to 50ὕyears. The birth (grey boxes with allowance for short “wash-out period” in between) and follow-up years (arrows) of individuals from subgroups exposed before and after birth are given in relation to initiation or termination of vitamin D fortification.
Mentions: In Denmark, from 1961 to 1985 vitamin D fortification of margarine was mandatory (1.25ὕμg/100ὕg), and from 1972 to 1976 fortification of low fat milk (2.5-3.8ὕμg/100ὕgὕmilk) was permitted. The vitamin D fortification of low fat milk was not mandatory and therefore not all low fat milk distributed in Denmark in the time period was fortified with vitamin D. Unfortunately, there are no national statistics indicating the proportion of milk consumed that was fortified with vitamin D. Nevertheless, the two well-defined time periods of vitamin D fortification provide a natural framework for comparing the effects of early exposure to vitamin D on the development of diseases later in life amongst exposed and non-exposed adjacent birth cohorts (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: The Danish National databases assure that there are a sufficient number of individuals to verify any vitamin D effects during different gestation phases.The results of the study will contribute to our current understanding of the significance of supplementation with vitamin D.Finally, the results of the study will justify the debate of Danish health authorities whether to resume vitamin D supplementation policies.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Preventive Medicine, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospitals - a part of Copenhagen University Hospital, Nordre Fasanvej 57, DK-2000 Frederiksberg, Denmark.

ABSTRACT

Background: Vitamin D deficiency is common among otherwise healthy pregnant women and may have consequences for them as well as the early development and long-term health of their children. However, the importance of maternal vitamin D status on offspring health later in life has not been widely studied. The present study includes an in-depth examination of the influence of exposure to vitamin D early in life for development of fractures of the wrist, arm and clavicle; obesity, and type 1 diabetes (T1D) during child- and adulthood.

Methods/design: The study is based on the fact that in 1961 fortifying margarine with vitamin D became mandatory in Denmark and in 1972 low fat milk fortification was allowed. Apart from determining the influences of exposure prior to conception and during prenatal life, we will examine the importance of vitamin D exposure during specific seasons and trimesters, by comparing disease incidence among individuals born before and after fortification. The Danish National databases assure that there are a sufficient number of individuals to verify any vitamin D effects during different gestation phases. Additionally, a validated method will be used to determine neonatal vitamin D status using stored dried blood spots (DBS) from individuals who developed the aforementioned disease entities as adults and their time and gender-matched controls.

Discussion: The results of the study will contribute to our current understanding of the significance of supplementation with vitamin D. More specifically, they will enable new research in related fields, including interventional research designed to assess supplementation needs for different subgroups of pregnant women. Also, other health outcomes can subsequently be studied to generate multiple health research opportunities involving vitamin D. Finally, the results of the study will justify the debate of Danish health authorities whether to resume vitamin D supplementation policies.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus