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Prospective study on the incidence and progression of clinical signs in naïve dogs naturally infected by Leishmania infantum.

Foglia Manzillo V, Di Muccio T, Cappiello S, Scalone A, Paparcone R, Fiorentino E, Gizzarelli M, Gramiccia M, Gradoni L, Oliva G - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2013)

Bottom Line: Ocular signs appeared even later, being sporadically recorded at M22.Most clinicopathological alterations became evident from M12, although a few cases of thrombocytopenia or mild non-regenerative anemia were already observed at M6.Albumin/globulin inversions were recorded from M12 and urea/creatinine increase appeared mostly from M18.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, University Federico II, Naples, Italy.

ABSTRACT
The incidence of clinical and clinicopathological signs associated with the progression of infection was evaluated prospectively in 329 naïve young dogs exposed to Leishmania infantum transmission and examined periodically during 22 months (M). The dogs were part of Leishmania vaccine investigations performed under natural conditions. Vaccinated groups were considered in the evaluation when the vaccine resulted non-protective and the appearance and progression of signs did not differ statistically from controls at each time point, otherwise only control groups were included. 115 beagles were part of 3 studies (A to C) performed in the same kennel; 214 owned dogs (29 breeds, 2.3% beagles) were included in a study (D) performed in 45 endemic sites. At M22 the prevalence of any Leishmania infection stage classified as subpatent, active asymptomatic, or symptomatic was 59.8% in studies A-C and 29.2% in study D. Despite different breed composition and infection incidence, the relative proportion of active infections and the progression and type of clinical and clinicopathological signs have been similar in both study sets. All asymptomatic active infections recorded have invariably progressed to full-blown disease, resulting in 56 sick dogs at M22. In these dogs, lymph nodes enlargement and weight loss--recorded from M12--were the most common signs. Cutaneous signs were seen late (M18) and less frequently. Ocular signs appeared even later, being sporadically recorded at M22. Most clinicopathological alterations became evident from M12, although a few cases of thrombocytopenia or mild non-regenerative anemia were already observed at M6. Albumin/globulin inversions were recorded from M12 and urea/creatinine increase appeared mostly from M18. Altogether our findings indicate that any susceptible young dogs naturally infected by L. infantum present a common pattern of progression of signs during 2 years post infection, providing clues for medical and epidemiological applied aspects.

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Prospective study D.Incidence of Leishmania infection stages detected in 214 owned dogs of different breeds at four time points from natural exposure.
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pntd-0002225-g003: Prospective study D.Incidence of Leishmania infection stages detected in 214 owned dogs of different breeds at four time points from natural exposure.

Mentions: A total of 130/214 dogs completed the study by attending regular follow-up examinations; 86 dogs were lost during the follow-up either because of poor owner's compliance to attend examinations, or due to deaths unrelated to Leishmania infection. At our best knowledge, none of the lost dogs have developed or died from symptomatic CanL. Infection stages recorded at each time point are shown in Fig. 3. At M22 92 dogs were still negative, 20 were in a sub-patent infection stage, 5 showed asymptomatic active infection and 13 symptomatic active infection, for a cumulative clinical disease incidence of 10.0% in about 2 years from initial exposure. Subpatent infections detected at each assessment showed a variety of progression patterns similar to A–C studies (data not shown). Clinically susceptible dogs belonged to 6 out of 29 breeds included initially in the study: 5 were mongrel dogs out of 70, 1/27 English Setters, 1/5 Beagles, 1/5 Bretons, 2/3 Bull dogs and 3/4 Dobermanns.


Prospective study on the incidence and progression of clinical signs in naïve dogs naturally infected by Leishmania infantum.

Foglia Manzillo V, Di Muccio T, Cappiello S, Scalone A, Paparcone R, Fiorentino E, Gizzarelli M, Gramiccia M, Gradoni L, Oliva G - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2013)

Prospective study D.Incidence of Leishmania infection stages detected in 214 owned dogs of different breeds at four time points from natural exposure.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3649971&req=5

pntd-0002225-g003: Prospective study D.Incidence of Leishmania infection stages detected in 214 owned dogs of different breeds at four time points from natural exposure.
Mentions: A total of 130/214 dogs completed the study by attending regular follow-up examinations; 86 dogs were lost during the follow-up either because of poor owner's compliance to attend examinations, or due to deaths unrelated to Leishmania infection. At our best knowledge, none of the lost dogs have developed or died from symptomatic CanL. Infection stages recorded at each time point are shown in Fig. 3. At M22 92 dogs were still negative, 20 were in a sub-patent infection stage, 5 showed asymptomatic active infection and 13 symptomatic active infection, for a cumulative clinical disease incidence of 10.0% in about 2 years from initial exposure. Subpatent infections detected at each assessment showed a variety of progression patterns similar to A–C studies (data not shown). Clinically susceptible dogs belonged to 6 out of 29 breeds included initially in the study: 5 were mongrel dogs out of 70, 1/27 English Setters, 1/5 Beagles, 1/5 Bretons, 2/3 Bull dogs and 3/4 Dobermanns.

Bottom Line: Ocular signs appeared even later, being sporadically recorded at M22.Most clinicopathological alterations became evident from M12, although a few cases of thrombocytopenia or mild non-regenerative anemia were already observed at M6.Albumin/globulin inversions were recorded from M12 and urea/creatinine increase appeared mostly from M18.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, University Federico II, Naples, Italy.

ABSTRACT
The incidence of clinical and clinicopathological signs associated with the progression of infection was evaluated prospectively in 329 naïve young dogs exposed to Leishmania infantum transmission and examined periodically during 22 months (M). The dogs were part of Leishmania vaccine investigations performed under natural conditions. Vaccinated groups were considered in the evaluation when the vaccine resulted non-protective and the appearance and progression of signs did not differ statistically from controls at each time point, otherwise only control groups were included. 115 beagles were part of 3 studies (A to C) performed in the same kennel; 214 owned dogs (29 breeds, 2.3% beagles) were included in a study (D) performed in 45 endemic sites. At M22 the prevalence of any Leishmania infection stage classified as subpatent, active asymptomatic, or symptomatic was 59.8% in studies A-C and 29.2% in study D. Despite different breed composition and infection incidence, the relative proportion of active infections and the progression and type of clinical and clinicopathological signs have been similar in both study sets. All asymptomatic active infections recorded have invariably progressed to full-blown disease, resulting in 56 sick dogs at M22. In these dogs, lymph nodes enlargement and weight loss--recorded from M12--were the most common signs. Cutaneous signs were seen late (M18) and less frequently. Ocular signs appeared even later, being sporadically recorded at M22. Most clinicopathological alterations became evident from M12, although a few cases of thrombocytopenia or mild non-regenerative anemia were already observed at M6. Albumin/globulin inversions were recorded from M12 and urea/creatinine increase appeared mostly from M18. Altogether our findings indicate that any susceptible young dogs naturally infected by L. infantum present a common pattern of progression of signs during 2 years post infection, providing clues for medical and epidemiological applied aspects.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus