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Can high altitude influence cytokines and sleep?

Lemos Vde A, dos Santos RV, Lira FS, Rodrigues B, Tufik S, de Mello MT - Mediators Inflamm. (2013)

Bottom Line: It is known that the reduced supply of oxygen (O2) induced by acute or chronic increases in altitude stimulates the body to adapt to new metabolic challenges imposed by hypoxia.We conducted a review of the literature during the period from 1987 to 2012.This work explored the relationships among inflammation, hypoxia and sleep in the period of adaptation and examined a novel mechanism that might explain the harmful effects of altitude on sleep, involving increased Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 β ), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- α ) production from several tissues and cells, such as leukocytes and cells from skeletal muscle and brain.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Psicobiologia, Campus São Paulo, UNIFESP, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. aquino.lemos@terra.com.br

ABSTRACT
The number of persons who relocate to regions of high altitude for work, pleasure, sport, or residence increases every year. It is known that the reduced supply of oxygen (O2) induced by acute or chronic increases in altitude stimulates the body to adapt to new metabolic challenges imposed by hypoxia. Sleep can suffer partial fragmentation because of the exposure to high altitudes, and these changes have been described as one of the responsible factors for the many consequences at high altitudes. We conducted a review of the literature during the period from 1987 to 2012. This work explored the relationships among inflammation, hypoxia and sleep in the period of adaptation and examined a novel mechanism that might explain the harmful effects of altitude on sleep, involving increased Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 β ), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- α ) production from several tissues and cells, such as leukocytes and cells from skeletal muscle and brain.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Solid line indicates stimulation; dotted line indicates inhibition.
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fig1: Solid line indicates stimulation; dotted line indicates inhibition.

Mentions: Cytokines can penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and act indirectly on the brain by stimulating the production of chemical second messengers that carry information to targets such as NF-κB and adenosine [41, 42] as shown in Figure 1. The hypothesis that cytokines could influence the functions of the nervous system (NS) is based on observations that treatment with cytokines, such as Interferon-γ (INF-γ), promotes neuroendocrine alterations, and other studies show that there are receptors for these cytokines in many areas of the brain [38, 43, 44]. Additional studies have shown that an increase in proinflammatory cytokine concentrations promotes a decrease in the transendothelial electrical resistance and an increase in the permeability of the BBB [45]. Finally, it is possible that cytokines can be produced within the brain itself in response to neuronal activity [35].


Can high altitude influence cytokines and sleep?

Lemos Vde A, dos Santos RV, Lira FS, Rodrigues B, Tufik S, de Mello MT - Mediators Inflamm. (2013)

Solid line indicates stimulation; dotted line indicates inhibition.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3649750&req=5

fig1: Solid line indicates stimulation; dotted line indicates inhibition.
Mentions: Cytokines can penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and act indirectly on the brain by stimulating the production of chemical second messengers that carry information to targets such as NF-κB and adenosine [41, 42] as shown in Figure 1. The hypothesis that cytokines could influence the functions of the nervous system (NS) is based on observations that treatment with cytokines, such as Interferon-γ (INF-γ), promotes neuroendocrine alterations, and other studies show that there are receptors for these cytokines in many areas of the brain [38, 43, 44]. Additional studies have shown that an increase in proinflammatory cytokine concentrations promotes a decrease in the transendothelial electrical resistance and an increase in the permeability of the BBB [45]. Finally, it is possible that cytokines can be produced within the brain itself in response to neuronal activity [35].

Bottom Line: It is known that the reduced supply of oxygen (O2) induced by acute or chronic increases in altitude stimulates the body to adapt to new metabolic challenges imposed by hypoxia.We conducted a review of the literature during the period from 1987 to 2012.This work explored the relationships among inflammation, hypoxia and sleep in the period of adaptation and examined a novel mechanism that might explain the harmful effects of altitude on sleep, involving increased Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 β ), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- α ) production from several tissues and cells, such as leukocytes and cells from skeletal muscle and brain.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Psicobiologia, Campus São Paulo, UNIFESP, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. aquino.lemos@terra.com.br

ABSTRACT
The number of persons who relocate to regions of high altitude for work, pleasure, sport, or residence increases every year. It is known that the reduced supply of oxygen (O2) induced by acute or chronic increases in altitude stimulates the body to adapt to new metabolic challenges imposed by hypoxia. Sleep can suffer partial fragmentation because of the exposure to high altitudes, and these changes have been described as one of the responsible factors for the many consequences at high altitudes. We conducted a review of the literature during the period from 1987 to 2012. This work explored the relationships among inflammation, hypoxia and sleep in the period of adaptation and examined a novel mechanism that might explain the harmful effects of altitude on sleep, involving increased Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 β ), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- α ) production from several tissues and cells, such as leukocytes and cells from skeletal muscle and brain.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus