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Major depressive disorder and measures of cellular aging: an integrative review.

Kinser PA, Lyon DE - Nurs Res Pract (2013)

Bottom Line: Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects millions of individuals and causes significant suffering worldwide.It has been speculated that MDD is associated with accelerated aging-related biological and functional decline.The findings from this review and the conceptual framework provided may be a useful step towards advancing therapeutic nursing interventions for this debilitating chronic condition.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Family and Community Health Nursing, School of Nursing, Virginia Commonwealth University, P.O. Box 980567, Richmond, VA 23298-0567, USA.

ABSTRACT
Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects millions of individuals and causes significant suffering worldwide. It has been speculated that MDD is associated with accelerated aging-related biological and functional decline. To examine the accelerated aging hypothesis, one of the biomarkers under study is leukocyte telomeres, and specifically the measure of telomere length and telomerase activity. This review integrates findings from eleven human studies which evaluated telomere length and telomerase activity, in order to synthesize the state of the current science and to inform the development of new knowledge and enhance nursing research of depression using appropriate biobehavioral measures. Although preliminary, the findings from this integrated review suggest that there is evidence to support a conceptualization of depression as a stress-related condition in which telomeres shorten over time in relation to cumulative exposure to the chronic stress of depression. For the purposes of testing in future nursing research, visual representations of the theoretical connection between stress vulnerabilities, depression, and health outcomes and key moderators and mediators involved in this conceptualization are provided. The findings from this review and the conceptual framework provided may be a useful step towards advancing therapeutic nursing interventions for this debilitating chronic condition.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Highly simplified schema of mediators and moderators potentially related to cell damage or dysfunction, accelerated cellular aging, and depression.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig3: Highly simplified schema of mediators and moderators potentially related to cell damage or dysfunction, accelerated cellular aging, and depression.

Mentions: Considering the extant literature supporting the connection between psychosocial stress, depression, and telomere length (see reviews such as [21, 54, 57]), it is clear that there are interrelated pathways involved in stress and depression. Figure 2 provides a visual representation of theoretical connections between stress vulnerabilities, depression, and health outcomes, in which the physiological changes occurring in depression may be reflected in biomarkers of accelerated cellular aging [9, 21, 54, 57]. For example, stress hormones and inflammation may be important mediators between telomere length, depression, and stress; a recent study found that high levels of pessimism, typical in depression, may be correlated with shortened leukocyte telomere length and elevated levels of IL-6 [58]. Figure 3 provides an oversimplified schema of potential moderators and mediators involved in accelerated cellular aging (for more details, see [59]). These models do not depict the complex relationships between many of these mediators but rather provide preliminary theoretical models for testing in future research. For instance, although shortened telomere length may reflect an accumulation of stress with chronic depression, it may be too early to confidently assert that TL may be used as a reliable biomarker in depression and research is needed to determine whether telomeric aging is reversible [60]. These models may be tested and applied in order to enhance our understanding of underlying mechanisms of interventions for depression and stress; for example, recent studies suggest that mindfulness, yoga, and relaxation techniques may be therapeutic interventions for mitigating the effects of chronic stress and depression, possibly preventing stress-related accelerated cellular aging [33, 55, 61–63].


Major depressive disorder and measures of cellular aging: an integrative review.

Kinser PA, Lyon DE - Nurs Res Pract (2013)

Highly simplified schema of mediators and moderators potentially related to cell damage or dysfunction, accelerated cellular aging, and depression.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3649747&req=5

fig3: Highly simplified schema of mediators and moderators potentially related to cell damage or dysfunction, accelerated cellular aging, and depression.
Mentions: Considering the extant literature supporting the connection between psychosocial stress, depression, and telomere length (see reviews such as [21, 54, 57]), it is clear that there are interrelated pathways involved in stress and depression. Figure 2 provides a visual representation of theoretical connections between stress vulnerabilities, depression, and health outcomes, in which the physiological changes occurring in depression may be reflected in biomarkers of accelerated cellular aging [9, 21, 54, 57]. For example, stress hormones and inflammation may be important mediators between telomere length, depression, and stress; a recent study found that high levels of pessimism, typical in depression, may be correlated with shortened leukocyte telomere length and elevated levels of IL-6 [58]. Figure 3 provides an oversimplified schema of potential moderators and mediators involved in accelerated cellular aging (for more details, see [59]). These models do not depict the complex relationships between many of these mediators but rather provide preliminary theoretical models for testing in future research. For instance, although shortened telomere length may reflect an accumulation of stress with chronic depression, it may be too early to confidently assert that TL may be used as a reliable biomarker in depression and research is needed to determine whether telomeric aging is reversible [60]. These models may be tested and applied in order to enhance our understanding of underlying mechanisms of interventions for depression and stress; for example, recent studies suggest that mindfulness, yoga, and relaxation techniques may be therapeutic interventions for mitigating the effects of chronic stress and depression, possibly preventing stress-related accelerated cellular aging [33, 55, 61–63].

Bottom Line: Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects millions of individuals and causes significant suffering worldwide.It has been speculated that MDD is associated with accelerated aging-related biological and functional decline.The findings from this review and the conceptual framework provided may be a useful step towards advancing therapeutic nursing interventions for this debilitating chronic condition.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Family and Community Health Nursing, School of Nursing, Virginia Commonwealth University, P.O. Box 980567, Richmond, VA 23298-0567, USA.

ABSTRACT
Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects millions of individuals and causes significant suffering worldwide. It has been speculated that MDD is associated with accelerated aging-related biological and functional decline. To examine the accelerated aging hypothesis, one of the biomarkers under study is leukocyte telomeres, and specifically the measure of telomere length and telomerase activity. This review integrates findings from eleven human studies which evaluated telomere length and telomerase activity, in order to synthesize the state of the current science and to inform the development of new knowledge and enhance nursing research of depression using appropriate biobehavioral measures. Although preliminary, the findings from this integrated review suggest that there is evidence to support a conceptualization of depression as a stress-related condition in which telomeres shorten over time in relation to cumulative exposure to the chronic stress of depression. For the purposes of testing in future nursing research, visual representations of the theoretical connection between stress vulnerabilities, depression, and health outcomes and key moderators and mediators involved in this conceptualization are provided. The findings from this review and the conceptual framework provided may be a useful step towards advancing therapeutic nursing interventions for this debilitating chronic condition.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus