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Autonomic nervous system in the control of energy balance and body weight: personal contributions.

Messina G, De Luca V, Viggiano A, Ascione A, Iannaccone T, Chieffi S, Monda M - Neurol Res Int (2013)

Bottom Line: This review summarizes our own data and perspectives, emphasizing the influence exerted by autonomic nervous system on energy expenditure and food intake, which are able to determine the body weight.Activation of the sympathetic discharge causes an increase in energy expenditure and a decrease in food intake, while reduction of food intake and body weight loss determines a reduction of the sympathetic activity.On the other hand, pathophysiological mechanisms of the obesity involve alterations of the sympathetic nervous system in accordance with the "Mona Lisa Hypothesis," an acronym for "most obesities known are low in sympathetic activity." Furthermore, the parasympathetic influences on the energy expenditure are analyzed in this review, showing that an increase in parasympathetic activity can induce a paradoxical enhancement of energy consumption.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Human Physiology and Clinical Dietetic Service, Second University of Naples, Via Costantinopoli 16, 80138 Naples, Italy.

ABSTRACT
The prevalence of obesity is increasing in the industrialized world, so that the World Health Organization considers obesity as a "pandemia" in rich populations. The autonomic nervous system plays a crucial role in the control of energy balance and body weight. This review summarizes our own data and perspectives, emphasizing the influence exerted by autonomic nervous system on energy expenditure and food intake, which are able to determine the body weight. Activation of the sympathetic discharge causes an increase in energy expenditure and a decrease in food intake, while reduction of food intake and body weight loss determines a reduction of the sympathetic activity. On the other hand, pathophysiological mechanisms of the obesity involve alterations of the sympathetic nervous system in accordance with the "Mona Lisa Hypothesis," an acronym for "most obesities known are low in sympathetic activity." Furthermore, the parasympathetic influences on the energy expenditure are analyzed in this review, showing that an increase in parasympathetic activity can induce a paradoxical enhancement of energy consumption.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Changes in energy expenditure induced by sport.
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sch5: Changes in energy expenditure induced by sport.

Mentions: Sports are known to induce several adaptive modifications, including changes in the activity of the autonomic nervous system and in resting energy expenditure (REE) [26, 27]. The parasympathetic tone is enhanced by physical training, so that a reduction in the heart rate (induced by vagal influence) is considered as an index of training status in athletes [28]. Since there are few studies concerning the comparison between vegetative and energetic changes of sedentary individuals and those of sportive subjects, the influence exerted by sedentary and basketball exercise training on the relationship between the activity of the autonomic nervous system and REE was evaluated. REE, body composition, and the level of activity of the autonomic nervous system were measured before and after a period of six months. The physical activity induced an increase in REE and free fat mass without variations in body weight. Basketball players showed a significant increase in the parasympathetic activity, measured by the power spectral analysis (PSA) of the heart rate variability (HRV). These findings (see Scheme 5) demonstrate that REE is higher in the athletes than in sedentary women, despite the augmented parasympathetic activity that is usually related to lower energy expenditure [29]. This is the first study to examine the effect of long-term training on relationship among cardiac HRV, REE, and body composition. In this study, an increase of the HF of the HRV-PSA has been noted in sportive women, confirming that exercise induces an increase of the parasympathetic activity at resting. On the contrary, the LF of the PSA of HRV has not been modified by sport activity, indicating that the basketball does not modify the sympathetic discharge. The increase in the parasympathetic activity is associated with an increase in REE. This association is an important result considering that the parasympathetic activity has generally been demonstrated to have an inverse relation to REE [30, 31].


Autonomic nervous system in the control of energy balance and body weight: personal contributions.

Messina G, De Luca V, Viggiano A, Ascione A, Iannaccone T, Chieffi S, Monda M - Neurol Res Int (2013)

Changes in energy expenditure induced by sport.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3649682&req=5

sch5: Changes in energy expenditure induced by sport.
Mentions: Sports are known to induce several adaptive modifications, including changes in the activity of the autonomic nervous system and in resting energy expenditure (REE) [26, 27]. The parasympathetic tone is enhanced by physical training, so that a reduction in the heart rate (induced by vagal influence) is considered as an index of training status in athletes [28]. Since there are few studies concerning the comparison between vegetative and energetic changes of sedentary individuals and those of sportive subjects, the influence exerted by sedentary and basketball exercise training on the relationship between the activity of the autonomic nervous system and REE was evaluated. REE, body composition, and the level of activity of the autonomic nervous system were measured before and after a period of six months. The physical activity induced an increase in REE and free fat mass without variations in body weight. Basketball players showed a significant increase in the parasympathetic activity, measured by the power spectral analysis (PSA) of the heart rate variability (HRV). These findings (see Scheme 5) demonstrate that REE is higher in the athletes than in sedentary women, despite the augmented parasympathetic activity that is usually related to lower energy expenditure [29]. This is the first study to examine the effect of long-term training on relationship among cardiac HRV, REE, and body composition. In this study, an increase of the HF of the HRV-PSA has been noted in sportive women, confirming that exercise induces an increase of the parasympathetic activity at resting. On the contrary, the LF of the PSA of HRV has not been modified by sport activity, indicating that the basketball does not modify the sympathetic discharge. The increase in the parasympathetic activity is associated with an increase in REE. This association is an important result considering that the parasympathetic activity has generally been demonstrated to have an inverse relation to REE [30, 31].

Bottom Line: This review summarizes our own data and perspectives, emphasizing the influence exerted by autonomic nervous system on energy expenditure and food intake, which are able to determine the body weight.Activation of the sympathetic discharge causes an increase in energy expenditure and a decrease in food intake, while reduction of food intake and body weight loss determines a reduction of the sympathetic activity.On the other hand, pathophysiological mechanisms of the obesity involve alterations of the sympathetic nervous system in accordance with the "Mona Lisa Hypothesis," an acronym for "most obesities known are low in sympathetic activity." Furthermore, the parasympathetic influences on the energy expenditure are analyzed in this review, showing that an increase in parasympathetic activity can induce a paradoxical enhancement of energy consumption.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Human Physiology and Clinical Dietetic Service, Second University of Naples, Via Costantinopoli 16, 80138 Naples, Italy.

ABSTRACT
The prevalence of obesity is increasing in the industrialized world, so that the World Health Organization considers obesity as a "pandemia" in rich populations. The autonomic nervous system plays a crucial role in the control of energy balance and body weight. This review summarizes our own data and perspectives, emphasizing the influence exerted by autonomic nervous system on energy expenditure and food intake, which are able to determine the body weight. Activation of the sympathetic discharge causes an increase in energy expenditure and a decrease in food intake, while reduction of food intake and body weight loss determines a reduction of the sympathetic activity. On the other hand, pathophysiological mechanisms of the obesity involve alterations of the sympathetic nervous system in accordance with the "Mona Lisa Hypothesis," an acronym for "most obesities known are low in sympathetic activity." Furthermore, the parasympathetic influences on the energy expenditure are analyzed in this review, showing that an increase in parasympathetic activity can induce a paradoxical enhancement of energy consumption.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus