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Autonomic nervous system in the control of energy balance and body weight: personal contributions.

Messina G, De Luca V, Viggiano A, Ascione A, Iannaccone T, Chieffi S, Monda M - Neurol Res Int (2013)

Bottom Line: This review summarizes our own data and perspectives, emphasizing the influence exerted by autonomic nervous system on energy expenditure and food intake, which are able to determine the body weight.Activation of the sympathetic discharge causes an increase in energy expenditure and a decrease in food intake, while reduction of food intake and body weight loss determines a reduction of the sympathetic activity.On the other hand, pathophysiological mechanisms of the obesity involve alterations of the sympathetic nervous system in accordance with the "Mona Lisa Hypothesis," an acronym for "most obesities known are low in sympathetic activity." Furthermore, the parasympathetic influences on the energy expenditure are analyzed in this review, showing that an increase in parasympathetic activity can induce a paradoxical enhancement of energy consumption.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Human Physiology and Clinical Dietetic Service, Second University of Naples, Via Costantinopoli 16, 80138 Naples, Italy.

ABSTRACT
The prevalence of obesity is increasing in the industrialized world, so that the World Health Organization considers obesity as a "pandemia" in rich populations. The autonomic nervous system plays a crucial role in the control of energy balance and body weight. This review summarizes our own data and perspectives, emphasizing the influence exerted by autonomic nervous system on energy expenditure and food intake, which are able to determine the body weight. Activation of the sympathetic discharge causes an increase in energy expenditure and a decrease in food intake, while reduction of food intake and body weight loss determines a reduction of the sympathetic activity. On the other hand, pathophysiological mechanisms of the obesity involve alterations of the sympathetic nervous system in accordance with the "Mona Lisa Hypothesis," an acronym for "most obesities known are low in sympathetic activity." Furthermore, the parasympathetic influences on the energy expenditure are analyzed in this review, showing that an increase in parasympathetic activity can induce a paradoxical enhancement of energy consumption.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Changes in energy expenditure induced by lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamus.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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sch2: Changes in energy expenditure induced by lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamus.

Mentions: The firing rate of sympathetic nerves to interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) was monitored both before and after 5 g of food intake in 24 h fasted rats with a lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamus and in 24 h fasted rats with sham-lesion. The firing rate of nerves to IBAT increased after food intake in sham-lesioned rats. This increase was significantly reduced in the lesioned rats. These findings indicate that the sympathetic nervous system is involved in the postingestional activation of the sympathetic discharge, and reduction of this activation occurs when the ventromedial hypothalamus is lesioned [20]. A long-term reduction of postingestional thermogenesis may contribute to the obesity induced by this hypothalamic lesion through a decrease in energy expenditure induced by reduced sympathetic activity (see Scheme 2). Since there is a close relationship between the sympathetic activity and food intake [19], a reduction in the sympathetic response after food intake could induce an increase of total amount of ingested food. This reduction may be another factor in the induction of obesity due to ventromedial hypothalamic lesions. In other words, the increased body weight may be caused by a reduction of satiety signals and a decrease in postingestional energy expenditure.


Autonomic nervous system in the control of energy balance and body weight: personal contributions.

Messina G, De Luca V, Viggiano A, Ascione A, Iannaccone T, Chieffi S, Monda M - Neurol Res Int (2013)

Changes in energy expenditure induced by lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamus.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3649682&req=5

sch2: Changes in energy expenditure induced by lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamus.
Mentions: The firing rate of sympathetic nerves to interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) was monitored both before and after 5 g of food intake in 24 h fasted rats with a lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamus and in 24 h fasted rats with sham-lesion. The firing rate of nerves to IBAT increased after food intake in sham-lesioned rats. This increase was significantly reduced in the lesioned rats. These findings indicate that the sympathetic nervous system is involved in the postingestional activation of the sympathetic discharge, and reduction of this activation occurs when the ventromedial hypothalamus is lesioned [20]. A long-term reduction of postingestional thermogenesis may contribute to the obesity induced by this hypothalamic lesion through a decrease in energy expenditure induced by reduced sympathetic activity (see Scheme 2). Since there is a close relationship between the sympathetic activity and food intake [19], a reduction in the sympathetic response after food intake could induce an increase of total amount of ingested food. This reduction may be another factor in the induction of obesity due to ventromedial hypothalamic lesions. In other words, the increased body weight may be caused by a reduction of satiety signals and a decrease in postingestional energy expenditure.

Bottom Line: This review summarizes our own data and perspectives, emphasizing the influence exerted by autonomic nervous system on energy expenditure and food intake, which are able to determine the body weight.Activation of the sympathetic discharge causes an increase in energy expenditure and a decrease in food intake, while reduction of food intake and body weight loss determines a reduction of the sympathetic activity.On the other hand, pathophysiological mechanisms of the obesity involve alterations of the sympathetic nervous system in accordance with the "Mona Lisa Hypothesis," an acronym for "most obesities known are low in sympathetic activity." Furthermore, the parasympathetic influences on the energy expenditure are analyzed in this review, showing that an increase in parasympathetic activity can induce a paradoxical enhancement of energy consumption.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Human Physiology and Clinical Dietetic Service, Second University of Naples, Via Costantinopoli 16, 80138 Naples, Italy.

ABSTRACT
The prevalence of obesity is increasing in the industrialized world, so that the World Health Organization considers obesity as a "pandemia" in rich populations. The autonomic nervous system plays a crucial role in the control of energy balance and body weight. This review summarizes our own data and perspectives, emphasizing the influence exerted by autonomic nervous system on energy expenditure and food intake, which are able to determine the body weight. Activation of the sympathetic discharge causes an increase in energy expenditure and a decrease in food intake, while reduction of food intake and body weight loss determines a reduction of the sympathetic activity. On the other hand, pathophysiological mechanisms of the obesity involve alterations of the sympathetic nervous system in accordance with the "Mona Lisa Hypothesis," an acronym for "most obesities known are low in sympathetic activity." Furthermore, the parasympathetic influences on the energy expenditure are analyzed in this review, showing that an increase in parasympathetic activity can induce a paradoxical enhancement of energy consumption.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus