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Toxicological profile of chlorophenols and their derivatives in the environment: the public health perspective.

Igbinosa EO, Odjadjare EE, Chigor VN, Igbinosa IH, Emoghene AO, Ekhaise FO, Igiehon NO, Idemudia OG - ScientificWorldJournal (2013)

Bottom Line: Chlorophenol compounds and their derivatives are ubiquitous contaminants in the environment.These compounds are used as intermediates in manufacturing agricultural chemicals, pharmaceuticals, biocides, and dyes.Furthermore, the recalcitrant nature of chlorophenolic compounds to degradation constitutes an environmental nuisance, and a good understanding of the fate and transport of these compounds and their derivatives is needed for a clearer view of the associated risks and mechanisms of pathogenicity to humans and animals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin, PMB 1154, Benin City, Nigeria. eigbinosa@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Chlorophenol compounds and their derivatives are ubiquitous contaminants in the environment. These compounds are used as intermediates in manufacturing agricultural chemicals, pharmaceuticals, biocides, and dyes. Chlorophenols gets into the environment from a variety of sources such as industrial waste, pesticides, and insecticides, or by degradation of complex chlorinated hydrocarbons. Thermal and chemical degradation of chlorophenols leads to the formation of harmful substances which constitute public health problems. These compounds may cause histopathological alterations, genotoxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity amongst other abnormalities in humans and animals. Furthermore, the recalcitrant nature of chlorophenolic compounds to degradation constitutes an environmental nuisance, and a good understanding of the fate and transport of these compounds and their derivatives is needed for a clearer view of the associated risks and mechanisms of pathogenicity to humans and animals. This review looks at chlorophenols and their derivatives, explores current research on their effects on public health, and proffers measures for mitigation.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Commercially the most important chlorophenols. 2,4-dicholorophenol (2,4-DCP) (1); pentachlorophenol (PCP) (2); 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP) (3); 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) (4) and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) (5).
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fig1: Commercially the most important chlorophenols. 2,4-dicholorophenol (2,4-DCP) (1); pentachlorophenol (PCP) (2); 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP) (3); 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) (4) and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) (5).

Mentions: The presence of chemicals in the environment due to its use for various purposes affects the quality of air, water, soil, and human health. It is important to assess the risks of these pollutants to the ecosystem in order to create a firm basis for environmental policy formulation. To this end, governmental agencies across the globe have issued several policy statements aimed not only at preserving the health of the teeming world population but also the environment. In 1976, the European Union (EU) categorized 132 dangerous substances (based on their toxicity, stability, and bioaccumulation) that should be monitored in waters [10]. Amongst these substances are organochlorinated compounds (or chlorophenols) and substances that can be converted to organochlorinated compounds (Table 1). The structures of some commercially important chlorophenols are shown in Figure 1.


Toxicological profile of chlorophenols and their derivatives in the environment: the public health perspective.

Igbinosa EO, Odjadjare EE, Chigor VN, Igbinosa IH, Emoghene AO, Ekhaise FO, Igiehon NO, Idemudia OG - ScientificWorldJournal (2013)

Commercially the most important chlorophenols. 2,4-dicholorophenol (2,4-DCP) (1); pentachlorophenol (PCP) (2); 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP) (3); 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) (4) and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) (5).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3649668&req=5

fig1: Commercially the most important chlorophenols. 2,4-dicholorophenol (2,4-DCP) (1); pentachlorophenol (PCP) (2); 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP) (3); 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) (4) and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) (5).
Mentions: The presence of chemicals in the environment due to its use for various purposes affects the quality of air, water, soil, and human health. It is important to assess the risks of these pollutants to the ecosystem in order to create a firm basis for environmental policy formulation. To this end, governmental agencies across the globe have issued several policy statements aimed not only at preserving the health of the teeming world population but also the environment. In 1976, the European Union (EU) categorized 132 dangerous substances (based on their toxicity, stability, and bioaccumulation) that should be monitored in waters [10]. Amongst these substances are organochlorinated compounds (or chlorophenols) and substances that can be converted to organochlorinated compounds (Table 1). The structures of some commercially important chlorophenols are shown in Figure 1.

Bottom Line: Chlorophenol compounds and their derivatives are ubiquitous contaminants in the environment.These compounds are used as intermediates in manufacturing agricultural chemicals, pharmaceuticals, biocides, and dyes.Furthermore, the recalcitrant nature of chlorophenolic compounds to degradation constitutes an environmental nuisance, and a good understanding of the fate and transport of these compounds and their derivatives is needed for a clearer view of the associated risks and mechanisms of pathogenicity to humans and animals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin, PMB 1154, Benin City, Nigeria. eigbinosa@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Chlorophenol compounds and their derivatives are ubiquitous contaminants in the environment. These compounds are used as intermediates in manufacturing agricultural chemicals, pharmaceuticals, biocides, and dyes. Chlorophenols gets into the environment from a variety of sources such as industrial waste, pesticides, and insecticides, or by degradation of complex chlorinated hydrocarbons. Thermal and chemical degradation of chlorophenols leads to the formation of harmful substances which constitute public health problems. These compounds may cause histopathological alterations, genotoxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity amongst other abnormalities in humans and animals. Furthermore, the recalcitrant nature of chlorophenolic compounds to degradation constitutes an environmental nuisance, and a good understanding of the fate and transport of these compounds and their derivatives is needed for a clearer view of the associated risks and mechanisms of pathogenicity to humans and animals. This review looks at chlorophenols and their derivatives, explores current research on their effects on public health, and proffers measures for mitigation.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus