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Coherent diffraction imaging of nanoscale strain evolution in a single crystal under high pressure.

Yang W, Huang X, Harder R, Clark JN, Robinson IK, Mao HK - Nat Commun (2013)

Bottom Line: Here we report the successful de-convolution of these effects with the recently developed mutual coherent function method to reveal the three-dimensional strain distribution inside a 400 nm gold single crystal during compression within a diamond-anvil cell.The three-dimensional morphology and evolution of the strain under pressures up to 6.4 GPa were obtained with better than 30 nm spatial resolution.In addition to providing a new approach for high-pressure nanotechnology and rheology studies, we draw fundamental conclusions about the origin of the anomalous compressibility of nanocrystals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: High Pressure Synergetic Consortium, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA. wyang@ciw.edu

ABSTRACT
The evolution of morphology and internal strain under high pressure fundamentally alters the physical property, structural stability, phase transition and deformation mechanism of materials. Until now, only averaged strain distributions have been studied. Bragg coherent X-ray diffraction imaging is highly sensitive to the internal strain distribution of individual crystals but requires coherent illumination, which can be compromised by the complex high-pressure sample environment. Here we report the successful de-convolution of these effects with the recently developed mutual coherent function method to reveal the three-dimensional strain distribution inside a 400 nm gold single crystal during compression within a diamond-anvil cell. The three-dimensional morphology and evolution of the strain under pressures up to 6.4 GPa were obtained with better than 30 nm spatial resolution. In addition to providing a new approach for high-pressure nanotechnology and rheology studies, we draw fundamental conclusions about the origin of the anomalous compressibility of nanocrystals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

3D morphology and strain distribution of the gold crystal at 1.7 GPa.(a) Isosurface (30%) of the reconstructed amplitude superimposed with a model of the possible {111} and {100} crystal planes. The normal directions of two sets of crystalline planes {111} and {100} are marked by two kinds of arrows (fat and narrow), and the one (111) used for the measurement is marked in red. (b,c) are the top and bottom view of phase shift distribution pasted on the 30% isosurface plot. Three strain distinguished locations numerically labelled are chosen for quantitative measurement as a function of pressure. (d) 3D phase distribution at different slicing depths spaced apart by 20 nm steps from top to bottom of the crystal. The colour scale is used to show the relative phase shift and normalized to range [−π/4, π/4].
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f3: 3D morphology and strain distribution of the gold crystal at 1.7 GPa.(a) Isosurface (30%) of the reconstructed amplitude superimposed with a model of the possible {111} and {100} crystal planes. The normal directions of two sets of crystalline planes {111} and {100} are marked by two kinds of arrows (fat and narrow), and the one (111) used for the measurement is marked in red. (b,c) are the top and bottom view of phase shift distribution pasted on the 30% isosurface plot. Three strain distinguished locations numerically labelled are chosen for quantitative measurement as a function of pressure. (d) 3D phase distribution at different slicing depths spaced apart by 20 nm steps from top to bottom of the crystal. The colour scale is used to show the relative phase shift and normalized to range [−π/4, π/4].

Mentions: As seen in the scanning-electron microscopy image of the gold nanoparticles in Fig. 1, the individual particles often adopt a faceted morphology, probably related to the equilibrium crystal shape at the annealing temperature. Figure 3 displays the reconstructed results of the 400 nm crystal at 1.7 GPa. The magnitude of the reconstructed density ψ(x) at its 30% isosurface is shown in Fig. 3a. The surface normal is along (111) direction and the crystal shape shows a good threefold symmetry. We notice that all surface facets can be described as either {111} or {100} crystalline planes, as it is known that the {111} and {100} facets are the most stable planes for Au. A tight wrap model, defined by all {111} and {100} planes, is overlaid with the 30% isosurface object in Fig. 3a. Fat and narrow arrows denote the {111} and {100} plane normal directions, respectively. The arrow labelled as red in Fig. 3a represents the q-vector direction of the Bragg reflection used. Figure 3b are the top and bottom view of phase shift, respectively. The colour shows the phase shift relative to the average phase of entire particle, set to zero. The phase shift colour is normalized to range [−π/4, π/4]. The bottom two rows in Fig. 3 are slices through the 3D reconstructed phase object in 20 nm depth steps running from the top to bottom. One can see the high-strain areas are mainly located at the corners where two {111} planes and one {100} plane intersect. The interior volume is nearly strain free. Three distinguished corners marked as 1, 2 and 3 in Fig. 3b were selected for further quantitative strain analysis as applied pressure increases.


Coherent diffraction imaging of nanoscale strain evolution in a single crystal under high pressure.

Yang W, Huang X, Harder R, Clark JN, Robinson IK, Mao HK - Nat Commun (2013)

3D morphology and strain distribution of the gold crystal at 1.7 GPa.(a) Isosurface (30%) of the reconstructed amplitude superimposed with a model of the possible {111} and {100} crystal planes. The normal directions of two sets of crystalline planes {111} and {100} are marked by two kinds of arrows (fat and narrow), and the one (111) used for the measurement is marked in red. (b,c) are the top and bottom view of phase shift distribution pasted on the 30% isosurface plot. Three strain distinguished locations numerically labelled are chosen for quantitative measurement as a function of pressure. (d) 3D phase distribution at different slicing depths spaced apart by 20 nm steps from top to bottom of the crystal. The colour scale is used to show the relative phase shift and normalized to range [−π/4, π/4].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3644065&req=5

f3: 3D morphology and strain distribution of the gold crystal at 1.7 GPa.(a) Isosurface (30%) of the reconstructed amplitude superimposed with a model of the possible {111} and {100} crystal planes. The normal directions of two sets of crystalline planes {111} and {100} are marked by two kinds of arrows (fat and narrow), and the one (111) used for the measurement is marked in red. (b,c) are the top and bottom view of phase shift distribution pasted on the 30% isosurface plot. Three strain distinguished locations numerically labelled are chosen for quantitative measurement as a function of pressure. (d) 3D phase distribution at different slicing depths spaced apart by 20 nm steps from top to bottom of the crystal. The colour scale is used to show the relative phase shift and normalized to range [−π/4, π/4].
Mentions: As seen in the scanning-electron microscopy image of the gold nanoparticles in Fig. 1, the individual particles often adopt a faceted morphology, probably related to the equilibrium crystal shape at the annealing temperature. Figure 3 displays the reconstructed results of the 400 nm crystal at 1.7 GPa. The magnitude of the reconstructed density ψ(x) at its 30% isosurface is shown in Fig. 3a. The surface normal is along (111) direction and the crystal shape shows a good threefold symmetry. We notice that all surface facets can be described as either {111} or {100} crystalline planes, as it is known that the {111} and {100} facets are the most stable planes for Au. A tight wrap model, defined by all {111} and {100} planes, is overlaid with the 30% isosurface object in Fig. 3a. Fat and narrow arrows denote the {111} and {100} plane normal directions, respectively. The arrow labelled as red in Fig. 3a represents the q-vector direction of the Bragg reflection used. Figure 3b are the top and bottom view of phase shift, respectively. The colour shows the phase shift relative to the average phase of entire particle, set to zero. The phase shift colour is normalized to range [−π/4, π/4]. The bottom two rows in Fig. 3 are slices through the 3D reconstructed phase object in 20 nm depth steps running from the top to bottom. One can see the high-strain areas are mainly located at the corners where two {111} planes and one {100} plane intersect. The interior volume is nearly strain free. Three distinguished corners marked as 1, 2 and 3 in Fig. 3b were selected for further quantitative strain analysis as applied pressure increases.

Bottom Line: Here we report the successful de-convolution of these effects with the recently developed mutual coherent function method to reveal the three-dimensional strain distribution inside a 400 nm gold single crystal during compression within a diamond-anvil cell.The three-dimensional morphology and evolution of the strain under pressures up to 6.4 GPa were obtained with better than 30 nm spatial resolution.In addition to providing a new approach for high-pressure nanotechnology and rheology studies, we draw fundamental conclusions about the origin of the anomalous compressibility of nanocrystals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: High Pressure Synergetic Consortium, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA. wyang@ciw.edu

ABSTRACT
The evolution of morphology and internal strain under high pressure fundamentally alters the physical property, structural stability, phase transition and deformation mechanism of materials. Until now, only averaged strain distributions have been studied. Bragg coherent X-ray diffraction imaging is highly sensitive to the internal strain distribution of individual crystals but requires coherent illumination, which can be compromised by the complex high-pressure sample environment. Here we report the successful de-convolution of these effects with the recently developed mutual coherent function method to reveal the three-dimensional strain distribution inside a 400 nm gold single crystal during compression within a diamond-anvil cell. The three-dimensional morphology and evolution of the strain under pressures up to 6.4 GPa were obtained with better than 30 nm spatial resolution. In addition to providing a new approach for high-pressure nanotechnology and rheology studies, we draw fundamental conclusions about the origin of the anomalous compressibility of nanocrystals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus