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Hoplitolyda duolunica gen. et sp. nov. (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Praesiricidae), the Hitherto largest sawfly from the Mesozoic of China.

Gao T, Shih C, Rasnitsyn AP, Ren D - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: Large body size of an insect, in general, enhances its capability of predation, competition, and defense, resulting in better survivability and reproduction.Even though Hoplitolyda differs significantly from all previously described genera in two subfamilies of Praesricidae, we leave the new genus unplaced in existing subfamilies, pending discovery of material with more taxonomic structure.Hoplitolyda has many unique and interesting characters which might have benefitted its competition, survival, and reproduction: large body size and head with robust and strong mandibles for defense and/or sexual selection, unique wing venation and setal arrangements for flight capability and mobility, dense hairs on body and legs for sensing and protection, etc.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Life Sciences, Capital Normal University, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT

Background: Large body size of an insect, in general, enhances its capability of predation, competition, and defense, resulting in better survivability and reproduction. Hymenopterans, most being phytophagous or parasitic, have a relatively small to medium body size, typically under 50.0 mm in body length.

Principal findings: Herein, we describe Hoplitolyda duolunica gen. et sp. nov., assigned to Praesiricidae, from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of China. This new species is the largest fossil hymenopteran hitherto with body estimated >55.0 mm long and wing span >92.0 mm. H. duolunica is, to our knowledge, the only sawfly with Sc present in the hind wing but not in the forewing. Its Rs1 and M1 meeting each other at 145° angle represents an intermediate in the transition from "Y" to "T" shapes. Even though Hoplitolyda differs significantly from all previously described genera in two subfamilies of Praesricidae, we leave the new genus unplaced in existing subfamilies, pending discovery of material with more taxonomic structure.

Conclusions/significance: Hoplitolyda has many unique and interesting characters which might have benefitted its competition, survival, and reproduction: large body size and head with robust and strong mandibles for defense and/or sexual selection, unique wing venation and setal arrangements for flight capability and mobility, dense hairs on body and legs for sensing and protection, etc. Considering the reported ferocious predators of feathered dinosaurs, pterosaurs, birds, and mammals coexisting in the same eco-system, Hoplitolyda is an interesting case of "survival of the fittest" in facing its evolutionary challenges.

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Hoplitolyda duolunica gen. et sp. nov., wings.A, photo of right wings; B, line drawing of forewing; C, Line drawing of hind wing; Scale bars = 5.0 mm.
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pone-0062420-g003: Hoplitolyda duolunica gen. et sp. nov., wings.A, photo of right wings; B, line drawing of forewing; C, Line drawing of hind wing; Scale bars = 5.0 mm.

Mentions: The name combines the Greek "Hoplit-" referring to "fully armed" and Lyda Fabricius, 1804, a junior synonym of Pamphilius Latreille, 1802 widely used to coin generic names in Pamphilioidea. Gender feminine.


Hoplitolyda duolunica gen. et sp. nov. (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Praesiricidae), the Hitherto largest sawfly from the Mesozoic of China.

Gao T, Shih C, Rasnitsyn AP, Ren D - PLoS ONE (2013)

Hoplitolyda duolunica gen. et sp. nov., wings.A, photo of right wings; B, line drawing of forewing; C, Line drawing of hind wing; Scale bars = 5.0 mm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3643952&req=5

pone-0062420-g003: Hoplitolyda duolunica gen. et sp. nov., wings.A, photo of right wings; B, line drawing of forewing; C, Line drawing of hind wing; Scale bars = 5.0 mm.
Mentions: The name combines the Greek "Hoplit-" referring to "fully armed" and Lyda Fabricius, 1804, a junior synonym of Pamphilius Latreille, 1802 widely used to coin generic names in Pamphilioidea. Gender feminine.

Bottom Line: Large body size of an insect, in general, enhances its capability of predation, competition, and defense, resulting in better survivability and reproduction.Even though Hoplitolyda differs significantly from all previously described genera in two subfamilies of Praesricidae, we leave the new genus unplaced in existing subfamilies, pending discovery of material with more taxonomic structure.Hoplitolyda has many unique and interesting characters which might have benefitted its competition, survival, and reproduction: large body size and head with robust and strong mandibles for defense and/or sexual selection, unique wing venation and setal arrangements for flight capability and mobility, dense hairs on body and legs for sensing and protection, etc.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Life Sciences, Capital Normal University, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT

Background: Large body size of an insect, in general, enhances its capability of predation, competition, and defense, resulting in better survivability and reproduction. Hymenopterans, most being phytophagous or parasitic, have a relatively small to medium body size, typically under 50.0 mm in body length.

Principal findings: Herein, we describe Hoplitolyda duolunica gen. et sp. nov., assigned to Praesiricidae, from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of China. This new species is the largest fossil hymenopteran hitherto with body estimated >55.0 mm long and wing span >92.0 mm. H. duolunica is, to our knowledge, the only sawfly with Sc present in the hind wing but not in the forewing. Its Rs1 and M1 meeting each other at 145° angle represents an intermediate in the transition from "Y" to "T" shapes. Even though Hoplitolyda differs significantly from all previously described genera in two subfamilies of Praesricidae, we leave the new genus unplaced in existing subfamilies, pending discovery of material with more taxonomic structure.

Conclusions/significance: Hoplitolyda has many unique and interesting characters which might have benefitted its competition, survival, and reproduction: large body size and head with robust and strong mandibles for defense and/or sexual selection, unique wing venation and setal arrangements for flight capability and mobility, dense hairs on body and legs for sensing and protection, etc. Considering the reported ferocious predators of feathered dinosaurs, pterosaurs, birds, and mammals coexisting in the same eco-system, Hoplitolyda is an interesting case of "survival of the fittest" in facing its evolutionary challenges.

Show MeSH