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Drought tolerance in wild plant populations: the case of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

Cortés AJ, Monserrate FA, Ramírez-Villegas J, Madriñán S, Blair MW - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: We also detected a broader geographic distribution of wild beans across ecologies compared to cultivated common beans in a reference collection of 297 cultivars.Both ecological drought stress indexes would be useful together with population structure for the genealogical analysis of gene families in common bean, for genome-wide genetic-environmental associations, and for postulating the evolutionary history and diversification processes that have occurred for the species.Finally, we propose that wild common bean should be taken into account to exploit variation for drought tolerance in cultivated common bean which is generally considered susceptible as a crop to drought stress.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Evolutionary Biology Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. andres.cortes@ebc.uu.se

ABSTRACT
Reliable estimations of drought tolerance in wild plant populations have proved to be challenging and more accessible alternatives are desirable. With that in mind, an ecological diversity study was conducted based on the geographical origin of 104 wild common bean accessions to estimate drought tolerance in their natural habitats. Our wild population sample covered a range of mesic to very dry habitats from Mexico to Argentina. Two potential evapotranspiration models that considered the effects of temperature and radiation were coupled with the precipitation regimes of the last fifty years for each collection site based on geographical information system analysis. We found that wild accessions were distributed among different precipitation regimes following a latitudinal gradient and that habitat ecological diversity of the collection sites was associated with natural sub-populations. We also detected a broader geographic distribution of wild beans across ecologies compared to cultivated common beans in a reference collection of 297 cultivars. Habitat drought stress index based on the Thornthwaite potential evapotranspiration model was equivalent to the Hamon estimator. Both ecological drought stress indexes would be useful together with population structure for the genealogical analysis of gene families in common bean, for genome-wide genetic-environmental associations, and for postulating the evolutionary history and diversification processes that have occurred for the species. Finally, we propose that wild common bean should be taken into account to exploit variation for drought tolerance in cultivated common bean which is generally considered susceptible as a crop to drought stress.

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Scatter plots for: A.mean annual precipitation (P12) and precipitation of the driest period (P14), B. mean annual precipitation (P12) and precipitation of the wettest period (P13), C. mean and maximum Thornthwaite Drought Index (DI), D. mean and maximum Hamon DI, E. two main components of the PCA for all bioclimatic variables (P1–P19– table 1), F. two main components of the PCA for precipitation related bioclimatic variables (P12–P19– table 1), and G. two main components of the PCA for drought-related bioclimatic variables (table 1).Arrows indicate the increase in the estimated drought stress for each component. Wild populations: M: Mesoamerican, G: Guatemala, C: Colombia, E: Ecuador-North Peru and A: Andean. Numbers in E, F and G are percentage of explained variation by each component.
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pone-0062898-g003: Scatter plots for: A.mean annual precipitation (P12) and precipitation of the driest period (P14), B. mean annual precipitation (P12) and precipitation of the wettest period (P13), C. mean and maximum Thornthwaite Drought Index (DI), D. mean and maximum Hamon DI, E. two main components of the PCA for all bioclimatic variables (P1–P19– table 1), F. two main components of the PCA for precipitation related bioclimatic variables (P12–P19– table 1), and G. two main components of the PCA for drought-related bioclimatic variables (table 1).Arrows indicate the increase in the estimated drought stress for each component. Wild populations: M: Mesoamerican, G: Guatemala, C: Colombia, E: Ecuador-North Peru and A: Andean. Numbers in E, F and G are percentage of explained variation by each component.

Mentions: Precipitation of the driest and wettest periods, mean and maximum Thornthwaite Drought Index, and mean and maximum Hamon Drought Index of each sub-population in biplot analysis confirmed the separation of the sub-populations into ecological niches (table 2 and figure 3). Each of the main components (F1-3) showed a slightly different pattern of environmental variation in relation with population structure, as is depicted in table 2. Among the three analytical sets which were considered (all bioclimatic variables, precipitation variables and drought-related variables) the first explained population structure the best (see dashed divisions in table 2 and variables in bold). The behavior of the variables in predicting wild accessions sub-grouping was confirmed by the clustering analysis with all bioclimatic variables (figure S2). However, the resolution provided by the PCA and clustering analysis to discern between natural populations was not comparable with that achieved by the use of drought indices. Analysis of variance (table 2) confirmed these observations.


Drought tolerance in wild plant populations: the case of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

Cortés AJ, Monserrate FA, Ramírez-Villegas J, Madriñán S, Blair MW - PLoS ONE (2013)

Scatter plots for: A.mean annual precipitation (P12) and precipitation of the driest period (P14), B. mean annual precipitation (P12) and precipitation of the wettest period (P13), C. mean and maximum Thornthwaite Drought Index (DI), D. mean and maximum Hamon DI, E. two main components of the PCA for all bioclimatic variables (P1–P19– table 1), F. two main components of the PCA for precipitation related bioclimatic variables (P12–P19– table 1), and G. two main components of the PCA for drought-related bioclimatic variables (table 1).Arrows indicate the increase in the estimated drought stress for each component. Wild populations: M: Mesoamerican, G: Guatemala, C: Colombia, E: Ecuador-North Peru and A: Andean. Numbers in E, F and G are percentage of explained variation by each component.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3643911&req=5

pone-0062898-g003: Scatter plots for: A.mean annual precipitation (P12) and precipitation of the driest period (P14), B. mean annual precipitation (P12) and precipitation of the wettest period (P13), C. mean and maximum Thornthwaite Drought Index (DI), D. mean and maximum Hamon DI, E. two main components of the PCA for all bioclimatic variables (P1–P19– table 1), F. two main components of the PCA for precipitation related bioclimatic variables (P12–P19– table 1), and G. two main components of the PCA for drought-related bioclimatic variables (table 1).Arrows indicate the increase in the estimated drought stress for each component. Wild populations: M: Mesoamerican, G: Guatemala, C: Colombia, E: Ecuador-North Peru and A: Andean. Numbers in E, F and G are percentage of explained variation by each component.
Mentions: Precipitation of the driest and wettest periods, mean and maximum Thornthwaite Drought Index, and mean and maximum Hamon Drought Index of each sub-population in biplot analysis confirmed the separation of the sub-populations into ecological niches (table 2 and figure 3). Each of the main components (F1-3) showed a slightly different pattern of environmental variation in relation with population structure, as is depicted in table 2. Among the three analytical sets which were considered (all bioclimatic variables, precipitation variables and drought-related variables) the first explained population structure the best (see dashed divisions in table 2 and variables in bold). The behavior of the variables in predicting wild accessions sub-grouping was confirmed by the clustering analysis with all bioclimatic variables (figure S2). However, the resolution provided by the PCA and clustering analysis to discern between natural populations was not comparable with that achieved by the use of drought indices. Analysis of variance (table 2) confirmed these observations.

Bottom Line: We also detected a broader geographic distribution of wild beans across ecologies compared to cultivated common beans in a reference collection of 297 cultivars.Both ecological drought stress indexes would be useful together with population structure for the genealogical analysis of gene families in common bean, for genome-wide genetic-environmental associations, and for postulating the evolutionary history and diversification processes that have occurred for the species.Finally, we propose that wild common bean should be taken into account to exploit variation for drought tolerance in cultivated common bean which is generally considered susceptible as a crop to drought stress.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Evolutionary Biology Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. andres.cortes@ebc.uu.se

ABSTRACT
Reliable estimations of drought tolerance in wild plant populations have proved to be challenging and more accessible alternatives are desirable. With that in mind, an ecological diversity study was conducted based on the geographical origin of 104 wild common bean accessions to estimate drought tolerance in their natural habitats. Our wild population sample covered a range of mesic to very dry habitats from Mexico to Argentina. Two potential evapotranspiration models that considered the effects of temperature and radiation were coupled with the precipitation regimes of the last fifty years for each collection site based on geographical information system analysis. We found that wild accessions were distributed among different precipitation regimes following a latitudinal gradient and that habitat ecological diversity of the collection sites was associated with natural sub-populations. We also detected a broader geographic distribution of wild beans across ecologies compared to cultivated common beans in a reference collection of 297 cultivars. Habitat drought stress index based on the Thornthwaite potential evapotranspiration model was equivalent to the Hamon estimator. Both ecological drought stress indexes would be useful together with population structure for the genealogical analysis of gene families in common bean, for genome-wide genetic-environmental associations, and for postulating the evolutionary history and diversification processes that have occurred for the species. Finally, we propose that wild common bean should be taken into account to exploit variation for drought tolerance in cultivated common bean which is generally considered susceptible as a crop to drought stress.

Show MeSH