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The impact of sex on brain responses to smoking cues: a perfusion fMRI study.

Wetherill RR, Young KA, Jagannathan K, Shin J, O'Brien CP, Childress AR, Franklin TR - Biol Sex Differ (2013)

Bottom Line: Direct comparisons between male and female brain responses revealed that males showed greater bilateral hippocampal/amygdala activation to smoking cues relative to non-smoking cues.Males and females exhibit similar responses to smoking cues relative to non-smoking cues in a priori reward-related regions; however, direct comparisons between sexes indicate that smoking cues evoke greater bilateral hippocampal/amygdalar activation among males.Given the current literature on sex differences in smoking cue neural activity is sparse and incomplete, these results contribute to our knowledge of the neurobiological underpinnings of drug cue reactivity.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. rweth@mail.med.upenn.edu.

ABSTRACT

Background: Anecdotal and clinical theories purport that females are more responsive to smoking cues, yet few objective, neurophysiological examinations of these theories have been conducted. The current study examines the impact of sex on brain responses to smoking cues.

Methods: Fifty-one (31 males) cigarette-dependent sated smokers underwent pseudo-continuous arterial spin-labeled perfusion functional magnetic resonance imaging during exposure to visual smoking cues and non-smoking cues. Brain responses to smoking cues relative to non-smoking cues were examined within males and females separately and then compared between males and females. Cigarettes smoked per day was included in analyses as a covariate.

Results: Both males and females showed increased responses to smoking cues compared to non-smoking cues with males exhibiting increased medial orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum/ventral pallidum responses, and females showing increased medial orbitofrontal cortex responses. Direct comparisons between male and female brain responses revealed that males showed greater bilateral hippocampal/amygdala activation to smoking cues relative to non-smoking cues.

Conclusions: Males and females exhibit similar responses to smoking cues relative to non-smoking cues in a priori reward-related regions; however, direct comparisons between sexes indicate that smoking cues evoke greater bilateral hippocampal/amygdalar activation among males. Given the current literature on sex differences in smoking cue neural activity is sparse and incomplete, these results contribute to our knowledge of the neurobiological underpinnings of drug cue reactivity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Brain responses to smoking cues relative to non-smoking cues. For females crosshairs are centered on the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC), for males crosshairs are centered on the ventral striatum (VS), and for direct comparisons between males and females crosshairs are centered on the left hippocampus/amygdala (H-A). Representative fMRI sagittal, axial, and coronal brain slices analyzed in SPM8 and overlain on the MNI brain. T values range from 3.10 to 4.19, corrected at p < 0.005. Images are displayed neurologically (left is left). An interactive visual display of all brain data in all three planes can be found at http://franklinbrainimaging.com.
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Figure 1: Brain responses to smoking cues relative to non-smoking cues. For females crosshairs are centered on the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC), for males crosshairs are centered on the ventral striatum (VS), and for direct comparisons between males and females crosshairs are centered on the left hippocampus/amygdala (H-A). Representative fMRI sagittal, axial, and coronal brain slices analyzed in SPM8 and overlain on the MNI brain. T values range from 3.10 to 4.19, corrected at p < 0.005. Images are displayed neurologically (left is left). An interactive visual display of all brain data in all three planes can be found at http://franklinbrainimaging.com.

Mentions: Males and female sated-smokers exhibited similar brain responses to SCs relative to non-SCs, with males exhibiting greater activity in mOFC and VS/VP regions and females showing enhanced activity in the mOFC. Comparisons between groups revealed significant sex differences with males exhibiting greater SC-induced brain activity in bilateral clusters spanning hippocampal and amygdalar regions compared with females (Figures 1, 2). An interactive visual display of all brain data and unmasked data at a reduced threshold can be found at http://franklinbrainimaging.com.


The impact of sex on brain responses to smoking cues: a perfusion fMRI study.

Wetherill RR, Young KA, Jagannathan K, Shin J, O'Brien CP, Childress AR, Franklin TR - Biol Sex Differ (2013)

Brain responses to smoking cues relative to non-smoking cues. For females crosshairs are centered on the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC), for males crosshairs are centered on the ventral striatum (VS), and for direct comparisons between males and females crosshairs are centered on the left hippocampus/amygdala (H-A). Representative fMRI sagittal, axial, and coronal brain slices analyzed in SPM8 and overlain on the MNI brain. T values range from 3.10 to 4.19, corrected at p < 0.005. Images are displayed neurologically (left is left). An interactive visual display of all brain data in all three planes can be found at http://franklinbrainimaging.com.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3643879&req=5

Figure 1: Brain responses to smoking cues relative to non-smoking cues. For females crosshairs are centered on the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC), for males crosshairs are centered on the ventral striatum (VS), and for direct comparisons between males and females crosshairs are centered on the left hippocampus/amygdala (H-A). Representative fMRI sagittal, axial, and coronal brain slices analyzed in SPM8 and overlain on the MNI brain. T values range from 3.10 to 4.19, corrected at p < 0.005. Images are displayed neurologically (left is left). An interactive visual display of all brain data in all three planes can be found at http://franklinbrainimaging.com.
Mentions: Males and female sated-smokers exhibited similar brain responses to SCs relative to non-SCs, with males exhibiting greater activity in mOFC and VS/VP regions and females showing enhanced activity in the mOFC. Comparisons between groups revealed significant sex differences with males exhibiting greater SC-induced brain activity in bilateral clusters spanning hippocampal and amygdalar regions compared with females (Figures 1, 2). An interactive visual display of all brain data and unmasked data at a reduced threshold can be found at http://franklinbrainimaging.com.

Bottom Line: Direct comparisons between male and female brain responses revealed that males showed greater bilateral hippocampal/amygdala activation to smoking cues relative to non-smoking cues.Males and females exhibit similar responses to smoking cues relative to non-smoking cues in a priori reward-related regions; however, direct comparisons between sexes indicate that smoking cues evoke greater bilateral hippocampal/amygdalar activation among males.Given the current literature on sex differences in smoking cue neural activity is sparse and incomplete, these results contribute to our knowledge of the neurobiological underpinnings of drug cue reactivity.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. rweth@mail.med.upenn.edu.

ABSTRACT

Background: Anecdotal and clinical theories purport that females are more responsive to smoking cues, yet few objective, neurophysiological examinations of these theories have been conducted. The current study examines the impact of sex on brain responses to smoking cues.

Methods: Fifty-one (31 males) cigarette-dependent sated smokers underwent pseudo-continuous arterial spin-labeled perfusion functional magnetic resonance imaging during exposure to visual smoking cues and non-smoking cues. Brain responses to smoking cues relative to non-smoking cues were examined within males and females separately and then compared between males and females. Cigarettes smoked per day was included in analyses as a covariate.

Results: Both males and females showed increased responses to smoking cues compared to non-smoking cues with males exhibiting increased medial orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum/ventral pallidum responses, and females showing increased medial orbitofrontal cortex responses. Direct comparisons between male and female brain responses revealed that males showed greater bilateral hippocampal/amygdala activation to smoking cues relative to non-smoking cues.

Conclusions: Males and females exhibit similar responses to smoking cues relative to non-smoking cues in a priori reward-related regions; however, direct comparisons between sexes indicate that smoking cues evoke greater bilateral hippocampal/amygdalar activation among males. Given the current literature on sex differences in smoking cue neural activity is sparse and incomplete, these results contribute to our knowledge of the neurobiological underpinnings of drug cue reactivity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus