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A cross sectional survey of knowledge, attitude and practices related to house flies among dairy farmers in Punjab, Pakistan.

Khan HA, Akram W, Shad SA, Razaq M, Naeem-Ullah U, Zia K - J Ethnobiol Ethnomed (2013)

Bottom Line: We found a positive association between dairy farmer's education level and overall knowledge of house flies in multivariate analysis.We conclude that the farmers' education level and knowledge of the breeding sites had a positive association with the adoption of prevention practices against house flies.The study also highlights the need of targeting the lack of knowledge of dairy farmers for the successful management of house flies.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan. azharnaturalist@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Background: House flies are of major public health concerns in areas with poor sanitation and hygienic conditions. Unfortunately, sanitation and hygiene have always been ignored in dairy farms particularly in the developing or low-income countries. Management of these flies mostly depends on the awareness regarding associated hazards and protective measures taken by the people to minimize risks associated with flies. The present study therefore explores the knowledge, attitude and practices taken by dairy farmers in Punjab, Pakistan against house flies.

Methods: The present study was based on a cross sectional self administered survey to a convenience sample of 173 small scale dairy farmers in four localities - Multan, Lahore, Shorkot and Faisalabad - of Pakistan. The relationships between socio-demographics, knowledge and preventive practices were investigated through logistic regression analysis and chi-square test of association.

Results: Considerable number of dairy farmers 71/173 (41.04%) had no idea about the problems associated with house flies. Although 77/173 (44.51%) dairy farmers reported house flies as disease transmitters, only 23 (29.87%) farmers were familiar with diseases and 22 (28.57%) had somewhat idea of the mode of disease transmission. We found a positive association between dairy farmer's education level and overall knowledge of house flies in multivariate analysis. Farmer's education level and knowledge of the house flies breeding sites had a positive association with the adoption of house fly prevention practices by the respondents. However, knowledge of the problems associated with house flies and preventive measures had no association with house fly prevention practices.

Conclusion: The present ethnoentomological survey provides information about knowledge, attitude and practices of dairy farmers related to house flies in Punjab, Pakistan. We conclude that the farmers' education level and knowledge of the breeding sites had a positive association with the adoption of prevention practices against house flies. The study also highlights the need of targeting the lack of knowledge of dairy farmers for the successful management of house flies.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Types of animals being reared by the respondents. n = number of farmers domesticating particular type of animals. Total number exceeds 173 due to multiple animal farming by the respondents.
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Figure 1: Types of animals being reared by the respondents. n = number of farmers domesticating particular type of animals. Total number exceeds 173 due to multiple animal farming by the respondents.

Mentions: The socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents are presented in Table 1. In total, 173 dairy farmers from four localities of the Punjab province, Pakistan were interviewed. Most of the respondents were male as females were reluctant to give interviews because of religious values and/or conservative style. The education level of the farmers revealed that most of them were illiterate, while a small fraction had their education up to secondary or graduate level. To examine whether there were significant differences in the socio-demographic characteristics among the farmers in samples across the four research locations or not, a chi-square test was conducted. There were no significant differences in socio-demographics among the respondents from all the localities of Punjab (P > 0.05) (Table 1). Most of the farmers were engaged in multiple animal farming systems (Figure 1). Cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat were the major animals being reared for dairy purpose. Donkey, horse and mule were the major equine mainly used for draught and transportation purposes while dogs were being reared for security purpose. Most of the respondents were also engaged in crop farming in addition to dairy farming.


A cross sectional survey of knowledge, attitude and practices related to house flies among dairy farmers in Punjab, Pakistan.

Khan HA, Akram W, Shad SA, Razaq M, Naeem-Ullah U, Zia K - J Ethnobiol Ethnomed (2013)

Types of animals being reared by the respondents. n = number of farmers domesticating particular type of animals. Total number exceeds 173 due to multiple animal farming by the respondents.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3643846&req=5

Figure 1: Types of animals being reared by the respondents. n = number of farmers domesticating particular type of animals. Total number exceeds 173 due to multiple animal farming by the respondents.
Mentions: The socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents are presented in Table 1. In total, 173 dairy farmers from four localities of the Punjab province, Pakistan were interviewed. Most of the respondents were male as females were reluctant to give interviews because of religious values and/or conservative style. The education level of the farmers revealed that most of them were illiterate, while a small fraction had their education up to secondary or graduate level. To examine whether there were significant differences in the socio-demographic characteristics among the farmers in samples across the four research locations or not, a chi-square test was conducted. There were no significant differences in socio-demographics among the respondents from all the localities of Punjab (P > 0.05) (Table 1). Most of the farmers were engaged in multiple animal farming systems (Figure 1). Cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat were the major animals being reared for dairy purpose. Donkey, horse and mule were the major equine mainly used for draught and transportation purposes while dogs were being reared for security purpose. Most of the respondents were also engaged in crop farming in addition to dairy farming.

Bottom Line: We found a positive association between dairy farmer's education level and overall knowledge of house flies in multivariate analysis.We conclude that the farmers' education level and knowledge of the breeding sites had a positive association with the adoption of prevention practices against house flies.The study also highlights the need of targeting the lack of knowledge of dairy farmers for the successful management of house flies.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan. azharnaturalist@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Background: House flies are of major public health concerns in areas with poor sanitation and hygienic conditions. Unfortunately, sanitation and hygiene have always been ignored in dairy farms particularly in the developing or low-income countries. Management of these flies mostly depends on the awareness regarding associated hazards and protective measures taken by the people to minimize risks associated with flies. The present study therefore explores the knowledge, attitude and practices taken by dairy farmers in Punjab, Pakistan against house flies.

Methods: The present study was based on a cross sectional self administered survey to a convenience sample of 173 small scale dairy farmers in four localities - Multan, Lahore, Shorkot and Faisalabad - of Pakistan. The relationships between socio-demographics, knowledge and preventive practices were investigated through logistic regression analysis and chi-square test of association.

Results: Considerable number of dairy farmers 71/173 (41.04%) had no idea about the problems associated with house flies. Although 77/173 (44.51%) dairy farmers reported house flies as disease transmitters, only 23 (29.87%) farmers were familiar with diseases and 22 (28.57%) had somewhat idea of the mode of disease transmission. We found a positive association between dairy farmer's education level and overall knowledge of house flies in multivariate analysis. Farmer's education level and knowledge of the house flies breeding sites had a positive association with the adoption of house fly prevention practices by the respondents. However, knowledge of the problems associated with house flies and preventive measures had no association with house fly prevention practices.

Conclusion: The present ethnoentomological survey provides information about knowledge, attitude and practices of dairy farmers related to house flies in Punjab, Pakistan. We conclude that the farmers' education level and knowledge of the breeding sites had a positive association with the adoption of prevention practices against house flies. The study also highlights the need of targeting the lack of knowledge of dairy farmers for the successful management of house flies.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus