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Leishman Giemsa cocktail as a new, potentially useful cytological technique comparable to Papanicolaou staining for oral cancer diagnosis.

Belgaumi U, Shetty P - J Cytol (2013)

Bottom Line: This easy, cost-effective and one-step technique warrants further study because of its potential application in screening of oral cancer.The results from the histologically confirmed cases of squamous cell carcinoma and the number of cases diagnosed by Pap and LG cocktail were almost identical and both were superior to MGG.LG cocktail is an easy, cost-effective and one-step technique comparable to Pap staining; however, it warrants further study in its potential application in screening of oral cancer.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, School of Dental Sciences, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences Deemed University, Karad, Maharashtra, India.

ABSTRACT

Background: Papanicolaou staining is commonly used for staining exfoliative cytology smears with Romanowsky stains being used sparingly. Leishman Giemsa (LG) cocktail, being a relatively new staining technique, has not been used in exfoliative cytology. This easy, cost-effective and one-step technique warrants further study because of its potential application in screening of oral cancer.

Aim: To study and evaluate the diagnostic efficiency and reliability of Leishman Giemsa (LG) cocktail in comparison with Papanicolaou (Pap) and May-Grünwald Giemsa (MGG) stains in exfoliated cells for the detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Materials and methods: Three smears were prepared from each 100 controls (buccal mucosa) and 100 patients, clinically diagnosed with oral squamous cell carcinoma and stained with Pap, MGG and LG cocktail stains. The slides were evaluated for the staining characteristics of nucleus and cytoplasm. The diagnostic efficiency of each stain was evaluated by comparing the cytologic diagnosis of each stain with the histopathological diagnosis. Finally, the diagnostic reliability was evaluated by comparing the three stains with each other and the histologic diagnosis.

Statistical analysis: The data were statistically evaluated with Friedman test, Wilcoxon sign rank test and McNemar chi square test using SPSS15 software.

Results: The results from the histologically confirmed cases of squamous cell carcinoma and the number of cases diagnosed by Pap and LG cocktail were almost identical and both were superior to MGG. The P value obtained for the confirmed cases of squamous cell carcinoma in comparison for Pap vs MGG was 0.001, MGG vs LG cocktail was 0.001 and LG cocktail vs Pap was 0.157. Hence, no statistical significant difference was observed between the diagnostic ability of Pap and LG cocktail stains.

Conclusion: LG cocktail is an easy, cost-effective and one-step technique comparable to Pap staining; however, it warrants further study in its potential application in screening of oral cancer.

No MeSH data available.


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Smear showing metachromasia of ground substance (MGG, ×400)
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Figure 1: Smear showing metachromasia of ground substance (MGG, ×400)

Mentions: In a study on smears from fine needle aspirates by Gabryal et al.,[9] cytoplasmic staining was found to be good with LG cocktail and excellent with MGG. But in the present study, it was observed that LG cocktail stain was better than MGG for cytoplasmic staining. The results for cytoplasmic staining for Pap and MGG were similar to a study by Idris and Hussain.[15] However, in a study by Sujathan et al.,[13] comparing Pap and MGG stains, MGG was a better cytoplasmic stain and Pap a better nuclear stain, and they suggested the use of both stains to increase efficacy. Though the nuclear transparency of Pap was absent in LG cocktail, the chromatin granularity and vesicularity was better appreciated in air-dried LG cocktail stained smears. This is in accordance with Gabryal et al.[9] Additionally, the nuclear enlargement and variation in nuclear size is exaggerated in air-dried smears which is helpful in cytological diagnosis. If the background staining is too intense, it may also prevent adequate visualisation of cell clusters.[13] In the present study too, MGG-stained smears showed a more intense metachromasia when compared to LG cocktail and sometimes obscured cellular detail [Figure 1].


Leishman Giemsa cocktail as a new, potentially useful cytological technique comparable to Papanicolaou staining for oral cancer diagnosis.

Belgaumi U, Shetty P - J Cytol (2013)

Smear showing metachromasia of ground substance (MGG, ×400)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3643356&req=5

Figure 1: Smear showing metachromasia of ground substance (MGG, ×400)
Mentions: In a study on smears from fine needle aspirates by Gabryal et al.,[9] cytoplasmic staining was found to be good with LG cocktail and excellent with MGG. But in the present study, it was observed that LG cocktail stain was better than MGG for cytoplasmic staining. The results for cytoplasmic staining for Pap and MGG were similar to a study by Idris and Hussain.[15] However, in a study by Sujathan et al.,[13] comparing Pap and MGG stains, MGG was a better cytoplasmic stain and Pap a better nuclear stain, and they suggested the use of both stains to increase efficacy. Though the nuclear transparency of Pap was absent in LG cocktail, the chromatin granularity and vesicularity was better appreciated in air-dried LG cocktail stained smears. This is in accordance with Gabryal et al.[9] Additionally, the nuclear enlargement and variation in nuclear size is exaggerated in air-dried smears which is helpful in cytological diagnosis. If the background staining is too intense, it may also prevent adequate visualisation of cell clusters.[13] In the present study too, MGG-stained smears showed a more intense metachromasia when compared to LG cocktail and sometimes obscured cellular detail [Figure 1].

Bottom Line: This easy, cost-effective and one-step technique warrants further study because of its potential application in screening of oral cancer.The results from the histologically confirmed cases of squamous cell carcinoma and the number of cases diagnosed by Pap and LG cocktail were almost identical and both were superior to MGG.LG cocktail is an easy, cost-effective and one-step technique comparable to Pap staining; however, it warrants further study in its potential application in screening of oral cancer.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, School of Dental Sciences, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences Deemed University, Karad, Maharashtra, India.

ABSTRACT

Background: Papanicolaou staining is commonly used for staining exfoliative cytology smears with Romanowsky stains being used sparingly. Leishman Giemsa (LG) cocktail, being a relatively new staining technique, has not been used in exfoliative cytology. This easy, cost-effective and one-step technique warrants further study because of its potential application in screening of oral cancer.

Aim: To study and evaluate the diagnostic efficiency and reliability of Leishman Giemsa (LG) cocktail in comparison with Papanicolaou (Pap) and May-Grünwald Giemsa (MGG) stains in exfoliated cells for the detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Materials and methods: Three smears were prepared from each 100 controls (buccal mucosa) and 100 patients, clinically diagnosed with oral squamous cell carcinoma and stained with Pap, MGG and LG cocktail stains. The slides were evaluated for the staining characteristics of nucleus and cytoplasm. The diagnostic efficiency of each stain was evaluated by comparing the cytologic diagnosis of each stain with the histopathological diagnosis. Finally, the diagnostic reliability was evaluated by comparing the three stains with each other and the histologic diagnosis.

Statistical analysis: The data were statistically evaluated with Friedman test, Wilcoxon sign rank test and McNemar chi square test using SPSS15 software.

Results: The results from the histologically confirmed cases of squamous cell carcinoma and the number of cases diagnosed by Pap and LG cocktail were almost identical and both were superior to MGG. The P value obtained for the confirmed cases of squamous cell carcinoma in comparison for Pap vs MGG was 0.001, MGG vs LG cocktail was 0.001 and LG cocktail vs Pap was 0.157. Hence, no statistical significant difference was observed between the diagnostic ability of Pap and LG cocktail stains.

Conclusion: LG cocktail is an easy, cost-effective and one-step technique comparable to Pap staining; however, it warrants further study in its potential application in screening of oral cancer.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus