Limits...
Modifying effect of calcium/magnesium intake ratio and mortality: a population-based cohort study.

Dai Q, Shu XO, Deng X, Xiang YB, Li H, Yang G, Shrubsole MJ, Ji B, Cai H, Chow WH, Gao YT, Zheng W - BMJ Open (2013)

Bottom Line: Consistent with our hypothesis, the Ca/Mg intake ratio significantly modified the associations of intakes of Ca and Mg with mortality risk, whereas no significant interactions between Ca and Mg in relation to outcome were found.Among men with a Ca/Mg ratio >1.7, increased intakes of Ca and Mg were associated with reduced risks of total mortality, and mortality due to coronary heart diseases.These results, if confirmed, may help to understand the optimal balance between Ca and Mg in the aetiology and prevention of these common diseases and reduction in mortality.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) antagonise each other in (re)absorption, inflammation and many other physiological activities. Based on mathematical estimation, the absorbed number of Ca or Mg depends on the dietary ratio of Ca to Mg intake. We hypothesise that the dietary Ca/Mg ratio modifies the effects of Ca and Mg on mortality due to gastrointestinal tract cancer and, perhaps, mortality due to diseases occurring in other organs or systems.

Design: Prospective studies.

Setting: Population-based cohort studies (The Shanghai Women's Health Study and the Shanghai Men's Health Study) conducted in Shanghai, China.

Participants: 74 942 Chinese women aged 40-70 years and 61 500 Chinese men aged 40-74 years participated in the study.

Primary outcome measures: All-cause mortality and disease-specific mortality.

Results: In this Chinese population with a low Ca/Mg intake ratio (a median of 1.7 vs around 3.0 in US populations), intakes of Mg greater than US Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) levels (320 mg/day among women and 420 mg/day among men) were related to increased risks of total mortality for both women and men. Consistent with our hypothesis, the Ca/Mg intake ratio significantly modified the associations of intakes of Ca and Mg with mortality risk, whereas no significant interactions between Ca and Mg in relation to outcome were found. The associations differed by gender. Among men with a Ca/Mg ratio >1.7, increased intakes of Ca and Mg were associated with reduced risks of total mortality, and mortality due to coronary heart diseases. In the same group, intake of Ca was associated with a reduced risk of mortality due to cancer. Among women with a Ca/Mg ratio ≤1.7, intake of Mg was associated with increased risks of total mortality, and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases and colorectal cancer.

Conclusions: These results, if confirmed, may help to understand the optimal balance between Ca and Mg in the aetiology and prevention of these common diseases and reduction in mortality.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparison of intake levels of Ca (mg/day), Mg (mg/day) and Ca/Mg ratio in the USA and Shangai, China.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3585973&req=5

BMJOPEN2012002111F1: Comparison of intake levels of Ca (mg/day), Mg (mg/day) and Ca/Mg ratio in the USA and Shangai, China.

Mentions: The US population's low Ca/Mg ratio range (defined as below the US median) overlaps with the high ratio range in the Chinese population (above the Chinese median; see figure 1). Thus, we further hypothesise that in Chinese populations, the intakes of Mg and Ca may only be related to a reduced risk of mortality due to colorectal cancer and, perhaps, other common diseases when the dietary Ca/Mg ratio is above the median (1.7). Conversely, previous studies indicate that a high Mg intake led to a negative Ca balance when the Ca intake was low (ie, low Ca/Mg ratio).29 Thus, a high Mg intake may have a detrimental effect when the Ca/Mg ratio is very low (below 1.7). We tested these hypotheses in two population-based cohorts conducted in China with over 130 000 participants.


Modifying effect of calcium/magnesium intake ratio and mortality: a population-based cohort study.

Dai Q, Shu XO, Deng X, Xiang YB, Li H, Yang G, Shrubsole MJ, Ji B, Cai H, Chow WH, Gao YT, Zheng W - BMJ Open (2013)

Comparison of intake levels of Ca (mg/day), Mg (mg/day) and Ca/Mg ratio in the USA and Shangai, China.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3585973&req=5

BMJOPEN2012002111F1: Comparison of intake levels of Ca (mg/day), Mg (mg/day) and Ca/Mg ratio in the USA and Shangai, China.
Mentions: The US population's low Ca/Mg ratio range (defined as below the US median) overlaps with the high ratio range in the Chinese population (above the Chinese median; see figure 1). Thus, we further hypothesise that in Chinese populations, the intakes of Mg and Ca may only be related to a reduced risk of mortality due to colorectal cancer and, perhaps, other common diseases when the dietary Ca/Mg ratio is above the median (1.7). Conversely, previous studies indicate that a high Mg intake led to a negative Ca balance when the Ca intake was low (ie, low Ca/Mg ratio).29 Thus, a high Mg intake may have a detrimental effect when the Ca/Mg ratio is very low (below 1.7). We tested these hypotheses in two population-based cohorts conducted in China with over 130 000 participants.

Bottom Line: Consistent with our hypothesis, the Ca/Mg intake ratio significantly modified the associations of intakes of Ca and Mg with mortality risk, whereas no significant interactions between Ca and Mg in relation to outcome were found.Among men with a Ca/Mg ratio >1.7, increased intakes of Ca and Mg were associated with reduced risks of total mortality, and mortality due to coronary heart diseases.These results, if confirmed, may help to understand the optimal balance between Ca and Mg in the aetiology and prevention of these common diseases and reduction in mortality.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) antagonise each other in (re)absorption, inflammation and many other physiological activities. Based on mathematical estimation, the absorbed number of Ca or Mg depends on the dietary ratio of Ca to Mg intake. We hypothesise that the dietary Ca/Mg ratio modifies the effects of Ca and Mg on mortality due to gastrointestinal tract cancer and, perhaps, mortality due to diseases occurring in other organs or systems.

Design: Prospective studies.

Setting: Population-based cohort studies (The Shanghai Women's Health Study and the Shanghai Men's Health Study) conducted in Shanghai, China.

Participants: 74 942 Chinese women aged 40-70 years and 61 500 Chinese men aged 40-74 years participated in the study.

Primary outcome measures: All-cause mortality and disease-specific mortality.

Results: In this Chinese population with a low Ca/Mg intake ratio (a median of 1.7 vs around 3.0 in US populations), intakes of Mg greater than US Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) levels (320 mg/day among women and 420 mg/day among men) were related to increased risks of total mortality for both women and men. Consistent with our hypothesis, the Ca/Mg intake ratio significantly modified the associations of intakes of Ca and Mg with mortality risk, whereas no significant interactions between Ca and Mg in relation to outcome were found. The associations differed by gender. Among men with a Ca/Mg ratio >1.7, increased intakes of Ca and Mg were associated with reduced risks of total mortality, and mortality due to coronary heart diseases. In the same group, intake of Ca was associated with a reduced risk of mortality due to cancer. Among women with a Ca/Mg ratio ≤1.7, intake of Mg was associated with increased risks of total mortality, and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases and colorectal cancer.

Conclusions: These results, if confirmed, may help to understand the optimal balance between Ca and Mg in the aetiology and prevention of these common diseases and reduction in mortality.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus