Limits...
Benefits of extensive recruitment effort persist during follow-ups and are consistent across age group and survey method. The TRAILS study.

Nederhof E, Jörg F, Raven D, Veenstra R, Verhulst FC, Ormel J, Oldehinkel AJ - BMC Med Res Methodol (2012)

Bottom Line: Hard-to-recruit dropouts did not differ from hard-to-recruit retainers.Some characteristics associated with being hard-to-recruit (as compared to being easy-to-recruit) were more pronounced among non-responders, resembling the baseline situation (De Winter et al.2005).First, extensive recruitment effort at the first assessment wave of a prospective population based cohort study has long lasting positive effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Interdisciplinary Center Psychopathology and Emotion regulation, University Center for Psychiatry, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. e.nederhof@umcg.nl

ABSTRACT

Background: Extensive recruitment effort at baseline increases representativeness of study populations by decreasing non-response and associated bias. First, it is not known to what extent increased attrition occurs during subsequent measurement waves among subjects who were hard-to-recruit at baseline and what characteristics the hard-to-recruit dropouts have compared to the hard-to-recruit retainers. Second, it is unknown whether characteristics of hard-to-recruit responders in a prospective population based cohort study are similar across age group and survey method.

Methods: First, we compared first wave (T1) easy-to-recruit with hard-to-recruit responders of the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a prospective population based cohort study of Dutch (pre)adolescents (at first wave: n = 2230, mean age = 11.09 (SD 0.56), 50.8% girls), with regard to response rates at subsequent measurement waves. Second, easy-to-recruit and hard-to-recruit participants at the fourth TRAILS measurement wave (n = 1881, mean age = 19.1 (SD 0.60), 52.3% girls) were compared with fourth wave non-responders and earlier stage drop-outs on family composition, socioeconomic position (SEP), intelligence (IQ), education, sociometric status, substance use, and psychopathology.

Results: First, over 60% of the hard-to-recruit responders at the first wave were retained in the sample eight years later at the fourth measurement wave. Hard-to-recruit dropouts did not differ from hard-to-recruit retainers. Second, extensive recruitment efforts for the web based survey convinced a population of nineteen year olds with similar characteristics as the hard-to-recruit eleven year olds that were persuaded to participate in a school-based survey. Some characteristics associated with being hard-to-recruit (as compared to being easy-to-recruit) were more pronounced among non-responders, resembling the baseline situation (De Winter et al.2005).

Conclusions: First, extensive recruitment effort at the first assessment wave of a prospective population based cohort study has long lasting positive effects. Second, characteristics of hard-to-recruit responders are largely consistent across age groups and survey methods.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Participation trajectories of adolescents who were easy or hard-to-recruit at the first TRAILS assessment wave.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3585928&req=5

Figure 1: Participation trajectories of adolescents who were easy or hard-to-recruit at the first TRAILS assessment wave.

Mentions: The first question in the present study was whether extensive recruitment effort at the first assessment wave (age 11) resulted in a more diverse sample eight years later, during the fourth assessment wave (age 19). Table 2 shows the response rates at T2, T3 and T4 of T1-easy-to-recruit responders and T1-hard-to-recruit responders, respectively. Of the T1-hard-to-recruit responders, 61% were still in the cohort at T4. As expected, attrition rates were significantly higher among T1-hard-to-recruit participants than among T1-easy-to-recruit participants, at all successive measurement waves (Table 2). This notwithstanding, over half of T1-hard-to-recruit participants were easy-to-recruit at T4 (Figure 1). Among the T1-hard-to-recruit participants we found no significant differences at T4 between retainers and drop-outs in sociodemographic variables, peer status or psychiatric symptoms (Table 3). This indicates no selective attrition of the most vulnerable T1-hard-to-recruit participants along the four measurement waves. In addition, T1-hard-to-recruit-retainers differ significantly from T1-easy-to-recruit retainers, indicating that the increased generalisability that was generated by the extra recruitment efforts at T1 is maintained throughout the waves.


Benefits of extensive recruitment effort persist during follow-ups and are consistent across age group and survey method. The TRAILS study.

Nederhof E, Jörg F, Raven D, Veenstra R, Verhulst FC, Ormel J, Oldehinkel AJ - BMC Med Res Methodol (2012)

Participation trajectories of adolescents who were easy or hard-to-recruit at the first TRAILS assessment wave.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3585928&req=5

Figure 1: Participation trajectories of adolescents who were easy or hard-to-recruit at the first TRAILS assessment wave.
Mentions: The first question in the present study was whether extensive recruitment effort at the first assessment wave (age 11) resulted in a more diverse sample eight years later, during the fourth assessment wave (age 19). Table 2 shows the response rates at T2, T3 and T4 of T1-easy-to-recruit responders and T1-hard-to-recruit responders, respectively. Of the T1-hard-to-recruit responders, 61% were still in the cohort at T4. As expected, attrition rates were significantly higher among T1-hard-to-recruit participants than among T1-easy-to-recruit participants, at all successive measurement waves (Table 2). This notwithstanding, over half of T1-hard-to-recruit participants were easy-to-recruit at T4 (Figure 1). Among the T1-hard-to-recruit participants we found no significant differences at T4 between retainers and drop-outs in sociodemographic variables, peer status or psychiatric symptoms (Table 3). This indicates no selective attrition of the most vulnerable T1-hard-to-recruit participants along the four measurement waves. In addition, T1-hard-to-recruit-retainers differ significantly from T1-easy-to-recruit retainers, indicating that the increased generalisability that was generated by the extra recruitment efforts at T1 is maintained throughout the waves.

Bottom Line: Hard-to-recruit dropouts did not differ from hard-to-recruit retainers.Some characteristics associated with being hard-to-recruit (as compared to being easy-to-recruit) were more pronounced among non-responders, resembling the baseline situation (De Winter et al.2005).First, extensive recruitment effort at the first assessment wave of a prospective population based cohort study has long lasting positive effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Interdisciplinary Center Psychopathology and Emotion regulation, University Center for Psychiatry, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. e.nederhof@umcg.nl

ABSTRACT

Background: Extensive recruitment effort at baseline increases representativeness of study populations by decreasing non-response and associated bias. First, it is not known to what extent increased attrition occurs during subsequent measurement waves among subjects who were hard-to-recruit at baseline and what characteristics the hard-to-recruit dropouts have compared to the hard-to-recruit retainers. Second, it is unknown whether characteristics of hard-to-recruit responders in a prospective population based cohort study are similar across age group and survey method.

Methods: First, we compared first wave (T1) easy-to-recruit with hard-to-recruit responders of the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a prospective population based cohort study of Dutch (pre)adolescents (at first wave: n = 2230, mean age = 11.09 (SD 0.56), 50.8% girls), with regard to response rates at subsequent measurement waves. Second, easy-to-recruit and hard-to-recruit participants at the fourth TRAILS measurement wave (n = 1881, mean age = 19.1 (SD 0.60), 52.3% girls) were compared with fourth wave non-responders and earlier stage drop-outs on family composition, socioeconomic position (SEP), intelligence (IQ), education, sociometric status, substance use, and psychopathology.

Results: First, over 60% of the hard-to-recruit responders at the first wave were retained in the sample eight years later at the fourth measurement wave. Hard-to-recruit dropouts did not differ from hard-to-recruit retainers. Second, extensive recruitment efforts for the web based survey convinced a population of nineteen year olds with similar characteristics as the hard-to-recruit eleven year olds that were persuaded to participate in a school-based survey. Some characteristics associated with being hard-to-recruit (as compared to being easy-to-recruit) were more pronounced among non-responders, resembling the baseline situation (De Winter et al.2005).

Conclusions: First, extensive recruitment effort at the first assessment wave of a prospective population based cohort study has long lasting positive effects. Second, characteristics of hard-to-recruit responders are largely consistent across age groups and survey methods.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus