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Exploring the diversity and distribution of neotropical avian malaria parasites--a molecular survey from Southeast Brazil.

Lacorte GA, Félix GM, Pinheiro RR, Chaves AV, Almeida-Neto G, Neves FS, Leite LO, Santos FR, Braga EM - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: No significant effects of habitat type on lineage richness were observed based on GLM analyses.We also found that sites whose samples had a greater diversity of bird species showed a greater diversity of parasite lineages, providing evidence that areas with high bird richness also have high parasite richness.Our findings point to the importance of the neotropical region (southeast Brazil) as a major reservoir of new haemosporidian lineages.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Southeast Brazil is a neotropical region composed of a mosaic of different tropical habitats and mountain chains, which allowed for the formation of bird-rich communities with distinct ecological niches. Although this region has the potential to harbor a remarkable variety of avian parasites, there is a lack of information about the diversity of malarial parasites. We used molecular approaches to characterize the lineage diversity of Plasmodium and Haemoproteus in bird communities from three different habitats in southeast Brazil based on the prevalence, richness and composition of lineages. We observed an overall prevalence of 35.3%, with a local prevalence ranging from 17.2% to 54.8%. Moreover, no significant association between prevalence and habitat type could be verified (p>0.05). We identified 89 Plasmodium and 22 Haemoproteus lineages, with 86% of them described for the first time here, including an unusual infection of a non-columbiform host by a Haemoproteus (Haemoproteus) parasite. The composition analyses of the parasite communities showed that the lineage composition from Brazilian savannah and tropical dry forest was similar, but it was different from the lineage composition of Atlantic rainforest, reflecting the greater likeness of the former habitats with respect to seasonality and forest density. No significant effects of habitat type on lineage richness were observed based on GLM analyses. We also found that sites whose samples had a greater diversity of bird species showed a greater diversity of parasite lineages, providing evidence that areas with high bird richness also have high parasite richness. Our findings point to the importance of the neotropical region (southeast Brazil) as a major reservoir of new haemosporidian lineages.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Map of southeast Brazil depicting the sampling sites and the delimitation of the highest areas of Espinhaço range.The names of the sampling sites are coded (ARA = Aracruz; BRA = Brasilândia; BOC = Bocaiúva; CAR = Caratinga; FEL = Felixlândia; JEQ = Jequitinhonha; MAN = Manga; NOV = Nova Lima; SAL = Salto da Divisa).
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pone-0057770-g005: Map of southeast Brazil depicting the sampling sites and the delimitation of the highest areas of Espinhaço range.The names of the sampling sites are coded (ARA = Aracruz; BRA = Brasilândia; BOC = Bocaiúva; CAR = Caratinga; FEL = Felixlândia; JEQ = Jequitinhonha; MAN = Manga; NOV = Nova Lima; SAL = Salto da Divisa).

Mentions: A total of 1,545 DNA samples from birds collected at 10 sites across the southeast Brazilian region were selected for this study (Table 1, Fig. 5). These DNA samples are part of the two bird DNA banks: LBEM DNA bank (maintained by FRS) and Malaria Lab Bird DNA bank (maintained by EMB). Samples from LBEM DNA bank were collected between 2000 and 2006 including samples from ARA, BOC, BRA, CAR, FEL, JEQ, NOV, SAL and SOO sites. Samples from Malaria Lab Bird DNA bank were obtained during 2010, including samples from MAN site. These sites were selected due to their representative bird communities with a variable richness of species comprising three different types of tropical ecosystems: Atlantic rainforest, Brazilian savannah and tropical dry forest [22]. The blood obtained from all birds, which were caught using mist nets, was stored in absolute alcohol in an ultra-freezer at −70C°. DNA extraction was performed with a phenol–chloroform–isoamilic alcohol protocol described in Sambrook et al. [47]. Samples from the LBEM DNA bank were collected between 2000 and 2006, whereas samples from the Malaria Lab Bird DNA bank were obtained during 2010.


Exploring the diversity and distribution of neotropical avian malaria parasites--a molecular survey from Southeast Brazil.

Lacorte GA, Félix GM, Pinheiro RR, Chaves AV, Almeida-Neto G, Neves FS, Leite LO, Santos FR, Braga EM - PLoS ONE (2013)

Map of southeast Brazil depicting the sampling sites and the delimitation of the highest areas of Espinhaço range.The names of the sampling sites are coded (ARA = Aracruz; BRA = Brasilândia; BOC = Bocaiúva; CAR = Caratinga; FEL = Felixlândia; JEQ = Jequitinhonha; MAN = Manga; NOV = Nova Lima; SAL = Salto da Divisa).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3585926&req=5

pone-0057770-g005: Map of southeast Brazil depicting the sampling sites and the delimitation of the highest areas of Espinhaço range.The names of the sampling sites are coded (ARA = Aracruz; BRA = Brasilândia; BOC = Bocaiúva; CAR = Caratinga; FEL = Felixlândia; JEQ = Jequitinhonha; MAN = Manga; NOV = Nova Lima; SAL = Salto da Divisa).
Mentions: A total of 1,545 DNA samples from birds collected at 10 sites across the southeast Brazilian region were selected for this study (Table 1, Fig. 5). These DNA samples are part of the two bird DNA banks: LBEM DNA bank (maintained by FRS) and Malaria Lab Bird DNA bank (maintained by EMB). Samples from LBEM DNA bank were collected between 2000 and 2006 including samples from ARA, BOC, BRA, CAR, FEL, JEQ, NOV, SAL and SOO sites. Samples from Malaria Lab Bird DNA bank were obtained during 2010, including samples from MAN site. These sites were selected due to their representative bird communities with a variable richness of species comprising three different types of tropical ecosystems: Atlantic rainforest, Brazilian savannah and tropical dry forest [22]. The blood obtained from all birds, which were caught using mist nets, was stored in absolute alcohol in an ultra-freezer at −70C°. DNA extraction was performed with a phenol–chloroform–isoamilic alcohol protocol described in Sambrook et al. [47]. Samples from the LBEM DNA bank were collected between 2000 and 2006, whereas samples from the Malaria Lab Bird DNA bank were obtained during 2010.

Bottom Line: No significant effects of habitat type on lineage richness were observed based on GLM analyses.We also found that sites whose samples had a greater diversity of bird species showed a greater diversity of parasite lineages, providing evidence that areas with high bird richness also have high parasite richness.Our findings point to the importance of the neotropical region (southeast Brazil) as a major reservoir of new haemosporidian lineages.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Southeast Brazil is a neotropical region composed of a mosaic of different tropical habitats and mountain chains, which allowed for the formation of bird-rich communities with distinct ecological niches. Although this region has the potential to harbor a remarkable variety of avian parasites, there is a lack of information about the diversity of malarial parasites. We used molecular approaches to characterize the lineage diversity of Plasmodium and Haemoproteus in bird communities from three different habitats in southeast Brazil based on the prevalence, richness and composition of lineages. We observed an overall prevalence of 35.3%, with a local prevalence ranging from 17.2% to 54.8%. Moreover, no significant association between prevalence and habitat type could be verified (p>0.05). We identified 89 Plasmodium and 22 Haemoproteus lineages, with 86% of them described for the first time here, including an unusual infection of a non-columbiform host by a Haemoproteus (Haemoproteus) parasite. The composition analyses of the parasite communities showed that the lineage composition from Brazilian savannah and tropical dry forest was similar, but it was different from the lineage composition of Atlantic rainforest, reflecting the greater likeness of the former habitats with respect to seasonality and forest density. No significant effects of habitat type on lineage richness were observed based on GLM analyses. We also found that sites whose samples had a greater diversity of bird species showed a greater diversity of parasite lineages, providing evidence that areas with high bird richness also have high parasite richness. Our findings point to the importance of the neotropical region (southeast Brazil) as a major reservoir of new haemosporidian lineages.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus