Limits...
Exploring the diversity and distribution of neotropical avian malaria parasites--a molecular survey from Southeast Brazil.

Lacorte GA, Félix GM, Pinheiro RR, Chaves AV, Almeida-Neto G, Neves FS, Leite LO, Santos FR, Braga EM - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: No significant effects of habitat type on lineage richness were observed based on GLM analyses.We also found that sites whose samples had a greater diversity of bird species showed a greater diversity of parasite lineages, providing evidence that areas with high bird richness also have high parasite richness.Our findings point to the importance of the neotropical region (southeast Brazil) as a major reservoir of new haemosporidian lineages.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Southeast Brazil is a neotropical region composed of a mosaic of different tropical habitats and mountain chains, which allowed for the formation of bird-rich communities with distinct ecological niches. Although this region has the potential to harbor a remarkable variety of avian parasites, there is a lack of information about the diversity of malarial parasites. We used molecular approaches to characterize the lineage diversity of Plasmodium and Haemoproteus in bird communities from three different habitats in southeast Brazil based on the prevalence, richness and composition of lineages. We observed an overall prevalence of 35.3%, with a local prevalence ranging from 17.2% to 54.8%. Moreover, no significant association between prevalence and habitat type could be verified (p>0.05). We identified 89 Plasmodium and 22 Haemoproteus lineages, with 86% of them described for the first time here, including an unusual infection of a non-columbiform host by a Haemoproteus (Haemoproteus) parasite. The composition analyses of the parasite communities showed that the lineage composition from Brazilian savannah and tropical dry forest was similar, but it was different from the lineage composition of Atlantic rainforest, reflecting the greater likeness of the former habitats with respect to seasonality and forest density. No significant effects of habitat type on lineage richness were observed based on GLM analyses. We also found that sites whose samples had a greater diversity of bird species showed a greater diversity of parasite lineages, providing evidence that areas with high bird richness also have high parasite richness. Our findings point to the importance of the neotropical region (southeast Brazil) as a major reservoir of new haemosporidian lineages.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Phylogenetic relationships of the Plasmodium cyt-b lineages.Plasmodium malariae was used as outgroup. Numbers located near of the branches indicate Bayesian probability values. Symbols depict the different habitats (star: Atlantic rainforest; circle: Brazilian savannah; triangle: seasonally dry forest). Family birds are coded (BUC = Bucconidae; CAD = Cardinalidae; COE = Coerebidae; CON = Conopophagidae; DEN = Dendrocolaptidae; EMB = Emberezidae; FOR = Formicaridae; FRI = Fringilidae; FUR = Furnaridae; GAL = Galbulidae; ICT = Icteridae; PAR = Parulidae; PIC = Picidae; PIP = Pipridae; POL = Polioptidae; THA = Thamnophilidae; THR = Thraupidae; TRO = Troglodytidae; TUR = Turdidade; TYR = Tyranidae; VIR = Vireonidae).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3585926&req=5

pone-0057770-g001: Phylogenetic relationships of the Plasmodium cyt-b lineages.Plasmodium malariae was used as outgroup. Numbers located near of the branches indicate Bayesian probability values. Symbols depict the different habitats (star: Atlantic rainforest; circle: Brazilian savannah; triangle: seasonally dry forest). Family birds are coded (BUC = Bucconidae; CAD = Cardinalidae; COE = Coerebidae; CON = Conopophagidae; DEN = Dendrocolaptidae; EMB = Emberezidae; FOR = Formicaridae; FRI = Fringilidae; FUR = Furnaridae; GAL = Galbulidae; ICT = Icteridae; PAR = Parulidae; PIC = Picidae; PIP = Pipridae; POL = Polioptidae; THA = Thamnophilidae; THR = Thraupidae; TRO = Troglodytidae; TUR = Turdidade; TYR = Tyranidae; VIR = Vireonidae).

Mentions: The phylogenetic analysis of the Plasmodium cyt-b sequences revealed five highly supported clades and several subclades (Fig. 1); however, the relationships among these clades could not be estimated due to the poor resolution of the deep tree branches. The average genetic distances within the clades ranged from 3.4% to 6.0%, whereas the average distances among the clades varied from 6.3% to 8.7%. Only a subclade of Clade 1 presented an association with a habitat type, these lineages were mostly detected in birds from Atlantic rainforest sites. The phylogenetic tree of Haemoproteus lineages revealed two highly supported clades corresponding to the commonly reported “Haemoproteus” and “Parahaemoproteus” subclades (Fig. 2). Although most of the lineages of the “Haemoproteus” clade infected bird species of the Columbidae, we found two unusual infections of a Cuculidae species, Coccyzus melacoryphus, by a lineage (COTAL01) belonging to this clade (Table S1). In addition, we observed that 78% of Haemoproteus lineages were found exclusively in a single habitat type.


Exploring the diversity and distribution of neotropical avian malaria parasites--a molecular survey from Southeast Brazil.

Lacorte GA, Félix GM, Pinheiro RR, Chaves AV, Almeida-Neto G, Neves FS, Leite LO, Santos FR, Braga EM - PLoS ONE (2013)

Phylogenetic relationships of the Plasmodium cyt-b lineages.Plasmodium malariae was used as outgroup. Numbers located near of the branches indicate Bayesian probability values. Symbols depict the different habitats (star: Atlantic rainforest; circle: Brazilian savannah; triangle: seasonally dry forest). Family birds are coded (BUC = Bucconidae; CAD = Cardinalidae; COE = Coerebidae; CON = Conopophagidae; DEN = Dendrocolaptidae; EMB = Emberezidae; FOR = Formicaridae; FRI = Fringilidae; FUR = Furnaridae; GAL = Galbulidae; ICT = Icteridae; PAR = Parulidae; PIC = Picidae; PIP = Pipridae; POL = Polioptidae; THA = Thamnophilidae; THR = Thraupidae; TRO = Troglodytidae; TUR = Turdidade; TYR = Tyranidae; VIR = Vireonidae).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3585926&req=5

pone-0057770-g001: Phylogenetic relationships of the Plasmodium cyt-b lineages.Plasmodium malariae was used as outgroup. Numbers located near of the branches indicate Bayesian probability values. Symbols depict the different habitats (star: Atlantic rainforest; circle: Brazilian savannah; triangle: seasonally dry forest). Family birds are coded (BUC = Bucconidae; CAD = Cardinalidae; COE = Coerebidae; CON = Conopophagidae; DEN = Dendrocolaptidae; EMB = Emberezidae; FOR = Formicaridae; FRI = Fringilidae; FUR = Furnaridae; GAL = Galbulidae; ICT = Icteridae; PAR = Parulidae; PIC = Picidae; PIP = Pipridae; POL = Polioptidae; THA = Thamnophilidae; THR = Thraupidae; TRO = Troglodytidae; TUR = Turdidade; TYR = Tyranidae; VIR = Vireonidae).
Mentions: The phylogenetic analysis of the Plasmodium cyt-b sequences revealed five highly supported clades and several subclades (Fig. 1); however, the relationships among these clades could not be estimated due to the poor resolution of the deep tree branches. The average genetic distances within the clades ranged from 3.4% to 6.0%, whereas the average distances among the clades varied from 6.3% to 8.7%. Only a subclade of Clade 1 presented an association with a habitat type, these lineages were mostly detected in birds from Atlantic rainforest sites. The phylogenetic tree of Haemoproteus lineages revealed two highly supported clades corresponding to the commonly reported “Haemoproteus” and “Parahaemoproteus” subclades (Fig. 2). Although most of the lineages of the “Haemoproteus” clade infected bird species of the Columbidae, we found two unusual infections of a Cuculidae species, Coccyzus melacoryphus, by a lineage (COTAL01) belonging to this clade (Table S1). In addition, we observed that 78% of Haemoproteus lineages were found exclusively in a single habitat type.

Bottom Line: No significant effects of habitat type on lineage richness were observed based on GLM analyses.We also found that sites whose samples had a greater diversity of bird species showed a greater diversity of parasite lineages, providing evidence that areas with high bird richness also have high parasite richness.Our findings point to the importance of the neotropical region (southeast Brazil) as a major reservoir of new haemosporidian lineages.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Southeast Brazil is a neotropical region composed of a mosaic of different tropical habitats and mountain chains, which allowed for the formation of bird-rich communities with distinct ecological niches. Although this region has the potential to harbor a remarkable variety of avian parasites, there is a lack of information about the diversity of malarial parasites. We used molecular approaches to characterize the lineage diversity of Plasmodium and Haemoproteus in bird communities from three different habitats in southeast Brazil based on the prevalence, richness and composition of lineages. We observed an overall prevalence of 35.3%, with a local prevalence ranging from 17.2% to 54.8%. Moreover, no significant association between prevalence and habitat type could be verified (p>0.05). We identified 89 Plasmodium and 22 Haemoproteus lineages, with 86% of them described for the first time here, including an unusual infection of a non-columbiform host by a Haemoproteus (Haemoproteus) parasite. The composition analyses of the parasite communities showed that the lineage composition from Brazilian savannah and tropical dry forest was similar, but it was different from the lineage composition of Atlantic rainforest, reflecting the greater likeness of the former habitats with respect to seasonality and forest density. No significant effects of habitat type on lineage richness were observed based on GLM analyses. We also found that sites whose samples had a greater diversity of bird species showed a greater diversity of parasite lineages, providing evidence that areas with high bird richness also have high parasite richness. Our findings point to the importance of the neotropical region (southeast Brazil) as a major reservoir of new haemosporidian lineages.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus