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Knowledge translation of the HELPinKIDS clinical practice guideline for managing childhood vaccination pain: usability and knowledge uptake of educational materials directed to new parents.

Taddio A, Shah V, Leung E, Wang J, Parikh C, Smart S, Hetherington R, Ipp M, Riddell RP, Sgro M, Jovicic A, Franck L - BMC Pediatr (2013)

Bottom Line: Although numerous evidence-based and feasible interventions are available to treat pain from childhood vaccine injections, evidence indicates that children are not benefitting from this knowledge.The objectives of this study were to evaluate usability and effectiveness in terms of knowledge acquisition from the pamphlet and video in parents of newly born infants.Parents' performance on the knowledge test improved (p≤0.001) from the baseline phase to after review of the pamphlet, and again from the pamphlet review phase to after review of the video.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Clinical Social and Administrative Pharmacy, Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, 144 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3M2, Canada. anna.taddio@utoronto.ca

ABSTRACT

Background: Although numerous evidence-based and feasible interventions are available to treat pain from childhood vaccine injections, evidence indicates that children are not benefitting from this knowledge. Unrelieved vaccination pain puts children at risk for significant long-term harms including the development of needle fears and subsequent health care avoidance behaviours. Parents report that while they want to mitigate vaccination pain in their children, they lack knowledge about how to do so. An evidence-based clinical practice guideline for managing vaccination pain was recently developed in order to address this knowledge-to-care gap. Educational tools (pamphlet and video) for parents were included to facilitate knowledge transfer at the point of care. The objectives of this study were to evaluate usability and effectiveness in terms of knowledge acquisition from the pamphlet and video in parents of newly born infants.

Methods: Mixed methods design. Following heuristic usability evaluation of the pamphlet and video, parents of newborn infants reviewed revised versions of both tools and participated in individual and group interviews and individual knowledge testing. The knowledge test comprised of 10 true/false questions about the effectiveness of various pain management interventions, and was administered at three time points: at baseline, after review of the pamphlet, and after review of the video.

Results: Three overarching themes were identified from the interviews regarding usability of these educational tools: receptivity to learning, accessibility to information, and validity of information. Parents' performance on the knowledge test improved (p≤0.001) from the baseline phase to after review of the pamphlet, and again from the pamphlet review phase to after review of the video.

Conclusions: Using a robust testing process, we demonstrated usability and conceptual knowledge acquisition from a parent-directed educational pamphlet and video about management of vaccination pain. Future studies are planned to determine the impact of these educational tools when introduced in clinical settings on parent behaviors during infant vaccinations.

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Final version of pamphlet.
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Figure 1: Final version of pamphlet.

Mentions: Parents reported that they were generally satisfied with the pamphlet; that it was easy to follow, and clear in terms of which methods were effective and ineffective. After each set of interviews, iterative changes were made to improve the visual and textual information, according to the principles of user-centered design. After the first set of interviews, the changes made included: 1) confining information on one side of the page to reduce redundancy and the need to turn the page; 2) re-organizing information according to preparatory activities that are performed ahead of time and pain-relieving activities that are performed on the day of vaccination; and 3) adding the SickKids’ website address for all of the HELPinKIDS resources to improve perceptions of the credibility of the information. In order to accommodate the changes, some textual explanations were shortened or deleted. After the second set of interviews, the following changes were made: 1) the use of colour was reduced to minimize perceptions that the pamphlet was cluttered; 2) some words were underlined to bring attention to them; and 3) the specific names of commercially available topical anesthetic products were included to facilitate acquisition by parents. After the third set of focus interviews, final edits were made to the pamphlet by AboutKidsHealth, and included; improving clarity and quality of images, and harmonizing the punctuation and writing style (Figure 1). The final version of the pamphlet is shown in: http://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/En/HealthAZ/TestsAndTreatments/GivingMedication/Pages/Pain-Free-Injections.aspx.


Knowledge translation of the HELPinKIDS clinical practice guideline for managing childhood vaccination pain: usability and knowledge uptake of educational materials directed to new parents.

Taddio A, Shah V, Leung E, Wang J, Parikh C, Smart S, Hetherington R, Ipp M, Riddell RP, Sgro M, Jovicic A, Franck L - BMC Pediatr (2013)

Final version of pamphlet.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3585914&req=5

Figure 1: Final version of pamphlet.
Mentions: Parents reported that they were generally satisfied with the pamphlet; that it was easy to follow, and clear in terms of which methods were effective and ineffective. After each set of interviews, iterative changes were made to improve the visual and textual information, according to the principles of user-centered design. After the first set of interviews, the changes made included: 1) confining information on one side of the page to reduce redundancy and the need to turn the page; 2) re-organizing information according to preparatory activities that are performed ahead of time and pain-relieving activities that are performed on the day of vaccination; and 3) adding the SickKids’ website address for all of the HELPinKIDS resources to improve perceptions of the credibility of the information. In order to accommodate the changes, some textual explanations were shortened or deleted. After the second set of interviews, the following changes were made: 1) the use of colour was reduced to minimize perceptions that the pamphlet was cluttered; 2) some words were underlined to bring attention to them; and 3) the specific names of commercially available topical anesthetic products were included to facilitate acquisition by parents. After the third set of focus interviews, final edits were made to the pamphlet by AboutKidsHealth, and included; improving clarity and quality of images, and harmonizing the punctuation and writing style (Figure 1). The final version of the pamphlet is shown in: http://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/En/HealthAZ/TestsAndTreatments/GivingMedication/Pages/Pain-Free-Injections.aspx.

Bottom Line: Although numerous evidence-based and feasible interventions are available to treat pain from childhood vaccine injections, evidence indicates that children are not benefitting from this knowledge.The objectives of this study were to evaluate usability and effectiveness in terms of knowledge acquisition from the pamphlet and video in parents of newly born infants.Parents' performance on the knowledge test improved (p≤0.001) from the baseline phase to after review of the pamphlet, and again from the pamphlet review phase to after review of the video.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Clinical Social and Administrative Pharmacy, Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, 144 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3M2, Canada. anna.taddio@utoronto.ca

ABSTRACT

Background: Although numerous evidence-based and feasible interventions are available to treat pain from childhood vaccine injections, evidence indicates that children are not benefitting from this knowledge. Unrelieved vaccination pain puts children at risk for significant long-term harms including the development of needle fears and subsequent health care avoidance behaviours. Parents report that while they want to mitigate vaccination pain in their children, they lack knowledge about how to do so. An evidence-based clinical practice guideline for managing vaccination pain was recently developed in order to address this knowledge-to-care gap. Educational tools (pamphlet and video) for parents were included to facilitate knowledge transfer at the point of care. The objectives of this study were to evaluate usability and effectiveness in terms of knowledge acquisition from the pamphlet and video in parents of newly born infants.

Methods: Mixed methods design. Following heuristic usability evaluation of the pamphlet and video, parents of newborn infants reviewed revised versions of both tools and participated in individual and group interviews and individual knowledge testing. The knowledge test comprised of 10 true/false questions about the effectiveness of various pain management interventions, and was administered at three time points: at baseline, after review of the pamphlet, and after review of the video.

Results: Three overarching themes were identified from the interviews regarding usability of these educational tools: receptivity to learning, accessibility to information, and validity of information. Parents' performance on the knowledge test improved (p≤0.001) from the baseline phase to after review of the pamphlet, and again from the pamphlet review phase to after review of the video.

Conclusions: Using a robust testing process, we demonstrated usability and conceptual knowledge acquisition from a parent-directed educational pamphlet and video about management of vaccination pain. Future studies are planned to determine the impact of these educational tools when introduced in clinical settings on parent behaviors during infant vaccinations.

Show MeSH