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Operational scale entomological intervention for malaria control: strategies, achievements and challenges in Zambia.

Chanda E, Mukonka VM, Kamuliwo M, Macdonald MB, Haque U - Malar. J. (2013)

Bottom Line: Thus, the World Health Organization (WHO) encourages the adoption of the integrated vector management (IVM) strategy which is a rational decision making process for optimal use of available resources.In Zambia, great progress has been made in implementing WHO-recommended vector control policies and strategies within the context of the IVM Global Strategic framework with strong adherence to its five key attributes.The Zambian experience demonstrates the significance of a coordinated multi-pronged IVM approach effectively operationalized within the context of a national health system.

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Affiliation: Department of Public Health and Research, National Malaria Control Centre, Ministry of Health, P.O. Box 32509, Lusaka, Zambia. emmanuel_chanda@yahoo.co.uk

ABSTRACT

Background: While consensus on malaria vector control policy and strategy has stimulated unprecedented political-will, backed by international funding organizations and donors, vector control interventions are expansively being implemented based on assumptions with unequaled successes. This manuscript reports on the strategies, achievements and challenges of the past and contemporary malaria vector control efforts in Zambia.

Case description: All available information and accessible archived documentary records on malaria vector control in Zambia were reviewed. Retrospective analysis of routine surveillance data from the Health Management Information System (HMIS), data from population-based household surveys and various operations research reports was conducted to assess the status in implementing policies and strategies.

Discussion and evaluation: Empirical evidence is critical for informing policy decisions and tailoring interventions to local settings. Thus, the World Health Organization (WHO) encourages the adoption of the integrated vector management (IVM) strategy which is a rational decision making process for optimal use of available resources. One of the key features of IVM is capacity building at the operational level to plan, implement, monitor and evaluate vector control and its epidemiological and entomological impact. In Zambia, great progress has been made in implementing WHO-recommended vector control policies and strategies within the context of the IVM Global Strategic framework with strong adherence to its five key attributes.

Conclusions: The country has solid, consistent and coordinated policies, strategies and guidelines for malaria vector control. The Zambian experience demonstrates the significance of a coordinated multi-pronged IVM approach effectively operationalized within the context of a national health system.

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Progressive scale-up of indoor residual spraying from 2003–2011.
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Figure 1: Progressive scale-up of indoor residual spraying from 2003–2011.

Mentions: • Indoor residual insecticide spraying. The operational design for IRS has an annual cycle [47]. The intervention has been expansively implemented with incremental scale up from 5 districts in 2003 to 36 in 2008 to 54 in 2010 and 72 in 2012 (Figure 1). With the goal of covering at least 85% of eligible households in targeted areas, IRS is deployed through annual campaigns using pyrethroids at 25 mg/m2 (deltamethrin and alpha-cypermethrin, (Bayer); and lambda cyhalothrin, (Syngenta), carbamates (Bayer), organophosphates (Syngenta) and DDT at 2 g/m2 (Avima). The spraying is carried out prior to the peak malaria transmission that coincides with the rainy season from November to April [47]. Community Health workers (CHWs) and Neighbourhood Health Committees (NHCs) conduct the actual spraying operations under the supervision of DHMTs in targeted districts. Spray operations are in line with country specific guidelines, adapted from the WHO standard protocols [15,48]. Computerised spray management systems are used to continually monitor the progress and performance of spray operations [49].


Operational scale entomological intervention for malaria control: strategies, achievements and challenges in Zambia.

Chanda E, Mukonka VM, Kamuliwo M, Macdonald MB, Haque U - Malar. J. (2013)

Progressive scale-up of indoor residual spraying from 2003–2011.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3585912&req=5

Figure 1: Progressive scale-up of indoor residual spraying from 2003–2011.
Mentions: • Indoor residual insecticide spraying. The operational design for IRS has an annual cycle [47]. The intervention has been expansively implemented with incremental scale up from 5 districts in 2003 to 36 in 2008 to 54 in 2010 and 72 in 2012 (Figure 1). With the goal of covering at least 85% of eligible households in targeted areas, IRS is deployed through annual campaigns using pyrethroids at 25 mg/m2 (deltamethrin and alpha-cypermethrin, (Bayer); and lambda cyhalothrin, (Syngenta), carbamates (Bayer), organophosphates (Syngenta) and DDT at 2 g/m2 (Avima). The spraying is carried out prior to the peak malaria transmission that coincides with the rainy season from November to April [47]. Community Health workers (CHWs) and Neighbourhood Health Committees (NHCs) conduct the actual spraying operations under the supervision of DHMTs in targeted districts. Spray operations are in line with country specific guidelines, adapted from the WHO standard protocols [15,48]. Computerised spray management systems are used to continually monitor the progress and performance of spray operations [49].

Bottom Line: Thus, the World Health Organization (WHO) encourages the adoption of the integrated vector management (IVM) strategy which is a rational decision making process for optimal use of available resources.In Zambia, great progress has been made in implementing WHO-recommended vector control policies and strategies within the context of the IVM Global Strategic framework with strong adherence to its five key attributes.The Zambian experience demonstrates the significance of a coordinated multi-pronged IVM approach effectively operationalized within the context of a national health system.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Public Health and Research, National Malaria Control Centre, Ministry of Health, P.O. Box 32509, Lusaka, Zambia. emmanuel_chanda@yahoo.co.uk

ABSTRACT

Background: While consensus on malaria vector control policy and strategy has stimulated unprecedented political-will, backed by international funding organizations and donors, vector control interventions are expansively being implemented based on assumptions with unequaled successes. This manuscript reports on the strategies, achievements and challenges of the past and contemporary malaria vector control efforts in Zambia.

Case description: All available information and accessible archived documentary records on malaria vector control in Zambia were reviewed. Retrospective analysis of routine surveillance data from the Health Management Information System (HMIS), data from population-based household surveys and various operations research reports was conducted to assess the status in implementing policies and strategies.

Discussion and evaluation: Empirical evidence is critical for informing policy decisions and tailoring interventions to local settings. Thus, the World Health Organization (WHO) encourages the adoption of the integrated vector management (IVM) strategy which is a rational decision making process for optimal use of available resources. One of the key features of IVM is capacity building at the operational level to plan, implement, monitor and evaluate vector control and its epidemiological and entomological impact. In Zambia, great progress has been made in implementing WHO-recommended vector control policies and strategies within the context of the IVM Global Strategic framework with strong adherence to its five key attributes.

Conclusions: The country has solid, consistent and coordinated policies, strategies and guidelines for malaria vector control. The Zambian experience demonstrates the significance of a coordinated multi-pronged IVM approach effectively operationalized within the context of a national health system.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus