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Brain anatomy in Diplura (Hexapoda).

Böhm A, Szucsich NU, Pass G - Front. Zool. (2012)

Bottom Line: In the past decade neuroanatomy has proved to be a valuable source of character systems that provide insights into arthropod relationships.In contrast, Archaeognatha completely lack mushroom bodies and exhibit a central body organization reminiscent of certain malacostracan crustaceans.Several hypotheses of brain evolution at the base of the hexapod tree are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria. a.boehm@univie.ac.at.

ABSTRACT

Background: In the past decade neuroanatomy has proved to be a valuable source of character systems that provide insights into arthropod relationships. Since the most detailed description of dipluran brain anatomy dates back to Hanström (1940) we re-investigated the brains of Campodea augens and Catajapyx aquilonaris with modern neuroanatomical techniques. The analyses are based on antibody staining and 3D reconstruction of the major neuropils and tracts from semi-thin section series.

Results: Remarkable features of the investigated dipluran brains are a large central body, which is organized in nine columns and three layers, and well developed mushroom bodies with calyces receiving input from spheroidal olfactory glomeruli in the deutocerebrum. Antibody staining against a catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (DC0) was used to further characterize the mushroom bodies. The japygid Catajapyx aquilonaris possesses mushroom bodies which are connected across the midline, a unique condition within hexapods.

Conclusions: Mushroom body and central body structure shows a high correspondence between japygids and campodeids. Some unique features indicate that neuroanatomy further supports the monophyly of Diplura. In a broader phylogenetic context, however, the polarization of brain characters becomes ambiguous. The mushroom bodies and the central body of Diplura in several aspects resemble those of Dicondylia, suggesting homology. In contrast, Archaeognatha completely lack mushroom bodies and exhibit a central body organization reminiscent of certain malacostracan crustaceans. Several hypotheses of brain evolution at the base of the hexapod tree are discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Brain morphology ofCatajapyx aquilonaris andCampodea augens. A, B and C: Brain and sog of Catajapyx aquilonaris. A) Dorsal view (asterisks: motor nerves innervating intrinsic antennal muscles and muscles attached to the base of the antenna), B) Sagittal view. C) Anterior view including the nerves innervating the mouthparts. Inset: Frontal ganglion lying in the right half of the body. Asterisks: two branches of the nc. D and E: Campodea augens, cell somata blue, remaining tissue yellow. Somata covering the subesophageal ganglion not shown in the reconstruction. D) Lateral view. E) Dorsal view (inset: ventral view), connectives to the first thoracic ganglion indicated by black lines. Abbreviations: an antennal nerves, dc deutocerebrum, fg frontal ganglion, fc frontal connective, mbl median brain lobe, lbl lateral brain lobe, ln labral nerve, nc nervus connectivus, nr nervus recurrens, nl nuchal lobe, pc protocerebrum, sog subesophageal ganglion, tc tritocerebrum, tcc tritocerebral commissure. Scale bar: A, D, E: 100 μm B, C: 70 μm.
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Figure 1: Brain morphology ofCatajapyx aquilonaris andCampodea augens. A, B and C: Brain and sog of Catajapyx aquilonaris. A) Dorsal view (asterisks: motor nerves innervating intrinsic antennal muscles and muscles attached to the base of the antenna), B) Sagittal view. C) Anterior view including the nerves innervating the mouthparts. Inset: Frontal ganglion lying in the right half of the body. Asterisks: two branches of the nc. D and E: Campodea augens, cell somata blue, remaining tissue yellow. Somata covering the subesophageal ganglion not shown in the reconstruction. D) Lateral view. E) Dorsal view (inset: ventral view), connectives to the first thoracic ganglion indicated by black lines. Abbreviations: an antennal nerves, dc deutocerebrum, fg frontal ganglion, fc frontal connective, mbl median brain lobe, lbl lateral brain lobe, ln labral nerve, nc nervus connectivus, nr nervus recurrens, nl nuchal lobe, pc protocerebrum, sog subesophageal ganglion, tc tritocerebrum, tcc tritocerebral commissure. Scale bar: A, D, E: 100 μm B, C: 70 μm.

Mentions: Diplura are characterized by a flattened, prognathous head capsule. The protocerebrum is tilted backward, lying immediately below the dorsal head cuticle. An anterodorsal position within the protocerebrum of a locust, for example, thus corresponds to a posterodorsal position in a dipluran brain. The sharp bend of the dipluran brain causes the deutocerebrum to be the most anterior part of the brain along the main body axis (Figure1B, D). The tritocerebrum lies ventrally to protocerebrum and deutocerebrum on both sides of the esophagus or is fused with the subesophageal ganglion (see below). At our level of analysis no differences in external or internal brain morphology were found between Catajapyx aquilonaris and Metajapyx braueri. For a comparison between our terminology and the one used by Hanström[32] see Table1. The terminology of an earlier account on the dipluran brain by Holmgren[31] is not included in this table but has been discussed by Hanström[32].


Brain anatomy in Diplura (Hexapoda).

Böhm A, Szucsich NU, Pass G - Front. Zool. (2012)

Brain morphology ofCatajapyx aquilonaris andCampodea augens. A, B and C: Brain and sog of Catajapyx aquilonaris. A) Dorsal view (asterisks: motor nerves innervating intrinsic antennal muscles and muscles attached to the base of the antenna), B) Sagittal view. C) Anterior view including the nerves innervating the mouthparts. Inset: Frontal ganglion lying in the right half of the body. Asterisks: two branches of the nc. D and E: Campodea augens, cell somata blue, remaining tissue yellow. Somata covering the subesophageal ganglion not shown in the reconstruction. D) Lateral view. E) Dorsal view (inset: ventral view), connectives to the first thoracic ganglion indicated by black lines. Abbreviations: an antennal nerves, dc deutocerebrum, fg frontal ganglion, fc frontal connective, mbl median brain lobe, lbl lateral brain lobe, ln labral nerve, nc nervus connectivus, nr nervus recurrens, nl nuchal lobe, pc protocerebrum, sog subesophageal ganglion, tc tritocerebrum, tcc tritocerebral commissure. Scale bar: A, D, E: 100 μm B, C: 70 μm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3585824&req=5

Figure 1: Brain morphology ofCatajapyx aquilonaris andCampodea augens. A, B and C: Brain and sog of Catajapyx aquilonaris. A) Dorsal view (asterisks: motor nerves innervating intrinsic antennal muscles and muscles attached to the base of the antenna), B) Sagittal view. C) Anterior view including the nerves innervating the mouthparts. Inset: Frontal ganglion lying in the right half of the body. Asterisks: two branches of the nc. D and E: Campodea augens, cell somata blue, remaining tissue yellow. Somata covering the subesophageal ganglion not shown in the reconstruction. D) Lateral view. E) Dorsal view (inset: ventral view), connectives to the first thoracic ganglion indicated by black lines. Abbreviations: an antennal nerves, dc deutocerebrum, fg frontal ganglion, fc frontal connective, mbl median brain lobe, lbl lateral brain lobe, ln labral nerve, nc nervus connectivus, nr nervus recurrens, nl nuchal lobe, pc protocerebrum, sog subesophageal ganglion, tc tritocerebrum, tcc tritocerebral commissure. Scale bar: A, D, E: 100 μm B, C: 70 μm.
Mentions: Diplura are characterized by a flattened, prognathous head capsule. The protocerebrum is tilted backward, lying immediately below the dorsal head cuticle. An anterodorsal position within the protocerebrum of a locust, for example, thus corresponds to a posterodorsal position in a dipluran brain. The sharp bend of the dipluran brain causes the deutocerebrum to be the most anterior part of the brain along the main body axis (Figure1B, D). The tritocerebrum lies ventrally to protocerebrum and deutocerebrum on both sides of the esophagus or is fused with the subesophageal ganglion (see below). At our level of analysis no differences in external or internal brain morphology were found between Catajapyx aquilonaris and Metajapyx braueri. For a comparison between our terminology and the one used by Hanström[32] see Table1. The terminology of an earlier account on the dipluran brain by Holmgren[31] is not included in this table but has been discussed by Hanström[32].

Bottom Line: In the past decade neuroanatomy has proved to be a valuable source of character systems that provide insights into arthropod relationships.In contrast, Archaeognatha completely lack mushroom bodies and exhibit a central body organization reminiscent of certain malacostracan crustaceans.Several hypotheses of brain evolution at the base of the hexapod tree are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria. a.boehm@univie.ac.at.

ABSTRACT

Background: In the past decade neuroanatomy has proved to be a valuable source of character systems that provide insights into arthropod relationships. Since the most detailed description of dipluran brain anatomy dates back to Hanström (1940) we re-investigated the brains of Campodea augens and Catajapyx aquilonaris with modern neuroanatomical techniques. The analyses are based on antibody staining and 3D reconstruction of the major neuropils and tracts from semi-thin section series.

Results: Remarkable features of the investigated dipluran brains are a large central body, which is organized in nine columns and three layers, and well developed mushroom bodies with calyces receiving input from spheroidal olfactory glomeruli in the deutocerebrum. Antibody staining against a catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (DC0) was used to further characterize the mushroom bodies. The japygid Catajapyx aquilonaris possesses mushroom bodies which are connected across the midline, a unique condition within hexapods.

Conclusions: Mushroom body and central body structure shows a high correspondence between japygids and campodeids. Some unique features indicate that neuroanatomy further supports the monophyly of Diplura. In a broader phylogenetic context, however, the polarization of brain characters becomes ambiguous. The mushroom bodies and the central body of Diplura in several aspects resemble those of Dicondylia, suggesting homology. In contrast, Archaeognatha completely lack mushroom bodies and exhibit a central body organization reminiscent of certain malacostracan crustaceans. Several hypotheses of brain evolution at the base of the hexapod tree are discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus