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Behavioral, ecological and genetic differentiation in an open environment--a study of a mysid population in the Baltic Sea.

Ogonowski M, Duberg J, Hansson S, Gorokhova E - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: Sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome subunit I (COI) gene showed genetic differentiation attributable to geographic location but not between benthic and pelagic groups.Divergent migration strategies were however supported by significantly lower gene flow between benthic populations indicating that these groups have a lower predisposition for horizontal migrations compared to pelagic ones.Thus, the combination of ecological, biochemical and genetic markers indicate that this partial migration may be a plastic behavioral trait that yields equal growth benefits.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden. martin.ogonowski@aquabiota.se

ABSTRACT
Diel vertical migration (DVM) is often assumed to encompass an entire population. However, bimodal nighttime vertical distributions have been observed in various taxa. Mysid shrimp populations also display this pattern with one group concentrated in the pelagia and the other near the bottom. This may indicate alternative migratory strategies, resembling the seasonal partial migrations seen in birds, fishes and amphibians, where only a subset of the population migrates. To assess the persistence of these alternative strategies, we analyzed the nitrogen and carbon stable isotope signatures (as proxies for diet), biochemical indices (as proxies for growth condition), and genetic population divergence in the Baltic mysid Mysis salemaai collected at night in the pelagia and close to the bottom. Stable isotope signatures were significantly different between migrants (pelagic samples) and residents (benthic samples), indicating persistent diet differences, with pelagic mysids having a more uniform and carnivorous diet. Sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome subunit I (COI) gene showed genetic differentiation attributable to geographic location but not between benthic and pelagic groups. Divergent migration strategies were however supported by significantly lower gene flow between benthic populations indicating that these groups have a lower predisposition for horizontal migrations compared to pelagic ones. Different migration strategies did not convey measurable growth benefits as pelagic and benthic mysids had similar growth condition indices. Thus, the combination of ecological, biochemical and genetic markers indicate that this partial migration may be a plastic behavioral trait that yields equal growth benefits.

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Minimum spanning tree depicting haplotypic relativeness.
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pone-0057210-g003: Minimum spanning tree depicting haplotypic relativeness.

Mentions: A total of 33 mtDNA haplotypes were identified among the 160 individuals of M. salemaai (GenBank, accession numbers: JF279706-JF279873), six of which (H1, H2, H5, H8, H10, and H16) have been described previously [18], [69]. Diversity indices were higher at station S2 than S1 (Table 3) with a maximum of 18 haplotypes in the pelagic sample at station S2. At each station, the pelagic group displayed higher haplotype and nucleotide diversities than the benthic group, with benthic mysids at S1 having the lowest diversity (Table 3). Only 3 haplotypes were shared between the four sampled groups (H1, H2 and H5; Fig. 3), H1 being the most frequent. The remaining haplotypes occurred with a frequency ranging from 1 to 7 and many were unique to their respective sampling locations. The haplotypes did not cluster into any specific habitat or station and most of the unique or less frequent haplotypes were closely related to the dominating haplotypes (H1 and H5), differing by one or two mutational steps (Fig. 3).


Behavioral, ecological and genetic differentiation in an open environment--a study of a mysid population in the Baltic Sea.

Ogonowski M, Duberg J, Hansson S, Gorokhova E - PLoS ONE (2013)

Minimum spanning tree depicting haplotypic relativeness.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3585809&req=5

pone-0057210-g003: Minimum spanning tree depicting haplotypic relativeness.
Mentions: A total of 33 mtDNA haplotypes were identified among the 160 individuals of M. salemaai (GenBank, accession numbers: JF279706-JF279873), six of which (H1, H2, H5, H8, H10, and H16) have been described previously [18], [69]. Diversity indices were higher at station S2 than S1 (Table 3) with a maximum of 18 haplotypes in the pelagic sample at station S2. At each station, the pelagic group displayed higher haplotype and nucleotide diversities than the benthic group, with benthic mysids at S1 having the lowest diversity (Table 3). Only 3 haplotypes were shared between the four sampled groups (H1, H2 and H5; Fig. 3), H1 being the most frequent. The remaining haplotypes occurred with a frequency ranging from 1 to 7 and many were unique to their respective sampling locations. The haplotypes did not cluster into any specific habitat or station and most of the unique or less frequent haplotypes were closely related to the dominating haplotypes (H1 and H5), differing by one or two mutational steps (Fig. 3).

Bottom Line: Sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome subunit I (COI) gene showed genetic differentiation attributable to geographic location but not between benthic and pelagic groups.Divergent migration strategies were however supported by significantly lower gene flow between benthic populations indicating that these groups have a lower predisposition for horizontal migrations compared to pelagic ones.Thus, the combination of ecological, biochemical and genetic markers indicate that this partial migration may be a plastic behavioral trait that yields equal growth benefits.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden. martin.ogonowski@aquabiota.se

ABSTRACT
Diel vertical migration (DVM) is often assumed to encompass an entire population. However, bimodal nighttime vertical distributions have been observed in various taxa. Mysid shrimp populations also display this pattern with one group concentrated in the pelagia and the other near the bottom. This may indicate alternative migratory strategies, resembling the seasonal partial migrations seen in birds, fishes and amphibians, where only a subset of the population migrates. To assess the persistence of these alternative strategies, we analyzed the nitrogen and carbon stable isotope signatures (as proxies for diet), biochemical indices (as proxies for growth condition), and genetic population divergence in the Baltic mysid Mysis salemaai collected at night in the pelagia and close to the bottom. Stable isotope signatures were significantly different between migrants (pelagic samples) and residents (benthic samples), indicating persistent diet differences, with pelagic mysids having a more uniform and carnivorous diet. Sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome subunit I (COI) gene showed genetic differentiation attributable to geographic location but not between benthic and pelagic groups. Divergent migration strategies were however supported by significantly lower gene flow between benthic populations indicating that these groups have a lower predisposition for horizontal migrations compared to pelagic ones. Different migration strategies did not convey measurable growth benefits as pelagic and benthic mysids had similar growth condition indices. Thus, the combination of ecological, biochemical and genetic markers indicate that this partial migration may be a plastic behavioral trait that yields equal growth benefits.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus