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n-3 PUFA added to high-fat diets affect differently adiposity and inflammation when carried by phospholipids or triacylglycerols in mice.

Awada M, Meynier A, Soulage CO, Hadji L, Géloën A, Viau M, Ribourg L, Benoit B, Debard C, Guichardant M, Lagarde M, Genot C, Michalski MC - Nutr Metab (Lond) (2013)

Bottom Line: The type of n-3 PUFA carrier affected other outcomes.The phospholipid form of n-3 PUFA increased the level of tocopherols in epididymal adipose tissue compared with HF-ω3TG and resulted in smaller adipocytes than the two others HF groups.Altogether, these results would support the development functional foods containing LC n-3 PUFA in the form of PL in order to prevent some deleterious outcomes associated with the development of obesity.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: INRA, U1362, CarMeN, Villeurbanne, F-69621, France. marie-caroline.michalski@insa-lyon.fr.

ABSTRACT

Background: Dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is primarily recognized to protect against cardiovascular diseases, cognitive dysfunctions and the onset of obesity and associated metabolic disorders. However, some of their properties such as bioavailability can depend on their chemical carriers. The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that the nature of n-3 PUFA carrier results in different metabolic effects related to adiposity, oxidative stress and inflammation.

Methods: 4 groups of C57BL/6 mice were fed for 8 weeks low fat (LF) diet or high-fat (HF, 20%) diets. Two groups of high-fat diets were supplemented with long-chain n-3 PUFA either incorporated in the form of phospholipids (HF-ω3PL) or triacylglycerols (HF-ω3TG).

Results: Both HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG diets reduced the plasma concentrations of (i) inflammatory markers such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), (ii) leptin and (iii) 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), a marker of n-6 PUFA-derived oxidative stress compared with the control HF diet. Moreover, in both HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG groups, MCP-1 and IL-6 gene expressions were decreased in epididymal adipose tissue and the mRNA level of gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase GPx2, an antioxidant enzyme, was decreased in the jejunum compared with the control HF diet. The type of n-3 PUFA carrier affected other outcomes. The phospholipid form of n-3 PUFA increased the level of tocopherols in epididymal adipose tissue compared with HF-ω3TG and resulted in smaller adipocytes than the two others HF groups. Adipocytes in the HF-ω3PL and LF groups were similar in size distribution.

Conclusion: Supplementation of mice diet with long-chain n-3 PUFA during long-term consumption of high-fat diets had the same lowering effects on inflammation regardless of triacyglycerol or phospholipid carrier, whereas the location of these fatty acids on a PL carrier had a major effect on decreasing the size of adipocytes that was not observed with the triacyglycerol carrier. Altogether, these results would support the development functional foods containing LC n-3 PUFA in the form of PL in order to prevent some deleterious outcomes associated with the development of obesity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Frequency evolution of adipocyte size of mice in epididymal fat pad. Individual measurements were performed on 12 000–14 000 adipocytes using osmium tetroxide - coulter counter procedure as described in Methods. Note that distribution of adipocyte size was shifted leftward (ie. Towards smaller size) in HF-ω3PL mice compared to HF and HF-ω3TG mice. Value are shown for one representative curve for each group.
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Figure 4: Frequency evolution of adipocyte size of mice in epididymal fat pad. Individual measurements were performed on 12 000–14 000 adipocytes using osmium tetroxide - coulter counter procedure as described in Methods. Note that distribution of adipocyte size was shifted leftward (ie. Towards smaller size) in HF-ω3PL mice compared to HF and HF-ω3TG mice. Value are shown for one representative curve for each group.

Mentions: To know whether the high-fat diets could affect the size and the number of adipocytes in mice, we performed a cellularity analysis of WAT. As shown Figure 4, the size distribution of the epididymal adipocytes in the HF-ω3PL group showed a marked shift toward smaller sizes compared with HF and HF-ω3TG groups. The same effect was observed in retroperitoneal fat pads. The cellular characteristics of eWAT in mice fed HF and HF supplemented with LC n-3 PUFA in the form of PL or TG are shown in Table 5. A reduction of fat accretion in eWAT was observed in HF-ω3PL group vs HF group but no difference was observed between HF-ω3TG and the two other groups. Adipocyte sizes in HF-ω3PL and LF groups were actually similar. This reduction resulted from a decrease in adipose cell volume rather than from a decrease in the total number of adipocytes per fat pad, as calculated from the measured size distribution. Indeed, mean adipocyte diameter was reduced by 14% in HF-ω3PL group vs HF group (P < 0.05) resulting in a 30% decrease in calculated adipose cell volume (P = 0.03).


n-3 PUFA added to high-fat diets affect differently adiposity and inflammation when carried by phospholipids or triacylglycerols in mice.

Awada M, Meynier A, Soulage CO, Hadji L, Géloën A, Viau M, Ribourg L, Benoit B, Debard C, Guichardant M, Lagarde M, Genot C, Michalski MC - Nutr Metab (Lond) (2013)

Frequency evolution of adipocyte size of mice in epididymal fat pad. Individual measurements were performed on 12 000–14 000 adipocytes using osmium tetroxide - coulter counter procedure as described in Methods. Note that distribution of adipocyte size was shifted leftward (ie. Towards smaller size) in HF-ω3PL mice compared to HF and HF-ω3TG mice. Value are shown for one representative curve for each group.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3585798&req=5

Figure 4: Frequency evolution of adipocyte size of mice in epididymal fat pad. Individual measurements were performed on 12 000–14 000 adipocytes using osmium tetroxide - coulter counter procedure as described in Methods. Note that distribution of adipocyte size was shifted leftward (ie. Towards smaller size) in HF-ω3PL mice compared to HF and HF-ω3TG mice. Value are shown for one representative curve for each group.
Mentions: To know whether the high-fat diets could affect the size and the number of adipocytes in mice, we performed a cellularity analysis of WAT. As shown Figure 4, the size distribution of the epididymal adipocytes in the HF-ω3PL group showed a marked shift toward smaller sizes compared with HF and HF-ω3TG groups. The same effect was observed in retroperitoneal fat pads. The cellular characteristics of eWAT in mice fed HF and HF supplemented with LC n-3 PUFA in the form of PL or TG are shown in Table 5. A reduction of fat accretion in eWAT was observed in HF-ω3PL group vs HF group but no difference was observed between HF-ω3TG and the two other groups. Adipocyte sizes in HF-ω3PL and LF groups were actually similar. This reduction resulted from a decrease in adipose cell volume rather than from a decrease in the total number of adipocytes per fat pad, as calculated from the measured size distribution. Indeed, mean adipocyte diameter was reduced by 14% in HF-ω3PL group vs HF group (P < 0.05) resulting in a 30% decrease in calculated adipose cell volume (P = 0.03).

Bottom Line: The type of n-3 PUFA carrier affected other outcomes.The phospholipid form of n-3 PUFA increased the level of tocopherols in epididymal adipose tissue compared with HF-ω3TG and resulted in smaller adipocytes than the two others HF groups.Altogether, these results would support the development functional foods containing LC n-3 PUFA in the form of PL in order to prevent some deleterious outcomes associated with the development of obesity.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: INRA, U1362, CarMeN, Villeurbanne, F-69621, France. marie-caroline.michalski@insa-lyon.fr.

ABSTRACT

Background: Dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is primarily recognized to protect against cardiovascular diseases, cognitive dysfunctions and the onset of obesity and associated metabolic disorders. However, some of their properties such as bioavailability can depend on their chemical carriers. The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that the nature of n-3 PUFA carrier results in different metabolic effects related to adiposity, oxidative stress and inflammation.

Methods: 4 groups of C57BL/6 mice were fed for 8 weeks low fat (LF) diet or high-fat (HF, 20%) diets. Two groups of high-fat diets were supplemented with long-chain n-3 PUFA either incorporated in the form of phospholipids (HF-ω3PL) or triacylglycerols (HF-ω3TG).

Results: Both HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG diets reduced the plasma concentrations of (i) inflammatory markers such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), (ii) leptin and (iii) 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), a marker of n-6 PUFA-derived oxidative stress compared with the control HF diet. Moreover, in both HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG groups, MCP-1 and IL-6 gene expressions were decreased in epididymal adipose tissue and the mRNA level of gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase GPx2, an antioxidant enzyme, was decreased in the jejunum compared with the control HF diet. The type of n-3 PUFA carrier affected other outcomes. The phospholipid form of n-3 PUFA increased the level of tocopherols in epididymal adipose tissue compared with HF-ω3TG and resulted in smaller adipocytes than the two others HF groups. Adipocytes in the HF-ω3PL and LF groups were similar in size distribution.

Conclusion: Supplementation of mice diet with long-chain n-3 PUFA during long-term consumption of high-fat diets had the same lowering effects on inflammation regardless of triacyglycerol or phospholipid carrier, whereas the location of these fatty acids on a PL carrier had a major effect on decreasing the size of adipocytes that was not observed with the triacyglycerol carrier. Altogether, these results would support the development functional foods containing LC n-3 PUFA in the form of PL in order to prevent some deleterious outcomes associated with the development of obesity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus