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n-3 PUFA added to high-fat diets affect differently adiposity and inflammation when carried by phospholipids or triacylglycerols in mice.

Awada M, Meynier A, Soulage CO, Hadji L, Géloën A, Viau M, Ribourg L, Benoit B, Debard C, Guichardant M, Lagarde M, Genot C, Michalski MC - Nutr Metab (Lond) (2013)

Bottom Line: The type of n-3 PUFA carrier affected other outcomes.The phospholipid form of n-3 PUFA increased the level of tocopherols in epididymal adipose tissue compared with HF-ω3TG and resulted in smaller adipocytes than the two others HF groups.Altogether, these results would support the development functional foods containing LC n-3 PUFA in the form of PL in order to prevent some deleterious outcomes associated with the development of obesity.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: INRA, U1362, CarMeN, Villeurbanne, F-69621, France. marie-caroline.michalski@insa-lyon.fr.

ABSTRACT

Background: Dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is primarily recognized to protect against cardiovascular diseases, cognitive dysfunctions and the onset of obesity and associated metabolic disorders. However, some of their properties such as bioavailability can depend on their chemical carriers. The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that the nature of n-3 PUFA carrier results in different metabolic effects related to adiposity, oxidative stress and inflammation.

Methods: 4 groups of C57BL/6 mice were fed for 8 weeks low fat (LF) diet or high-fat (HF, 20%) diets. Two groups of high-fat diets were supplemented with long-chain n-3 PUFA either incorporated in the form of phospholipids (HF-ω3PL) or triacylglycerols (HF-ω3TG).

Results: Both HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG diets reduced the plasma concentrations of (i) inflammatory markers such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), (ii) leptin and (iii) 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), a marker of n-6 PUFA-derived oxidative stress compared with the control HF diet. Moreover, in both HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG groups, MCP-1 and IL-6 gene expressions were decreased in epididymal adipose tissue and the mRNA level of gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase GPx2, an antioxidant enzyme, was decreased in the jejunum compared with the control HF diet. The type of n-3 PUFA carrier affected other outcomes. The phospholipid form of n-3 PUFA increased the level of tocopherols in epididymal adipose tissue compared with HF-ω3TG and resulted in smaller adipocytes than the two others HF groups. Adipocytes in the HF-ω3PL and LF groups were similar in size distribution.

Conclusion: Supplementation of mice diet with long-chain n-3 PUFA during long-term consumption of high-fat diets had the same lowering effects on inflammation regardless of triacyglycerol or phospholipid carrier, whereas the location of these fatty acids on a PL carrier had a major effect on decreasing the size of adipocytes that was not observed with the triacyglycerol carrier. Altogether, these results would support the development functional foods containing LC n-3 PUFA in the form of PL in order to prevent some deleterious outcomes associated with the development of obesity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Inflammation and endotoxin metabolism parameters in plasma of mice fed different diets. (A) monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1; pg/ml); (B) Interleukin-6 (IL-6; μg/ml). (C) lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP; μg/ml). (D) (soluble cluster of differentiation 14 (sCD14; μg/ml). (E) leptin (ng/ml); (F) Adiponectin (μg/ml). Data are means ± SEM (n = 6-8). (*P < 0.05 vs HF); ($P < 0.05 vs LF). ANOVA followed by Fisher test.
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Figure 2: Inflammation and endotoxin metabolism parameters in plasma of mice fed different diets. (A) monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1; pg/ml); (B) Interleukin-6 (IL-6; μg/ml). (C) lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP; μg/ml). (D) (soluble cluster of differentiation 14 (sCD14; μg/ml). (E) leptin (ng/ml); (F) Adiponectin (μg/ml). Data are means ± SEM (n = 6-8). (*P < 0.05 vs HF); ($P < 0.05 vs LF). ANOVA followed by Fisher test.

Mentions: High-fat diets are known to induce a metabolic inflammation related to (i) the concentrations of different types of adipokines and (ii) endotoxin transport. Regarding inflammation, we show higher concentrations in plasma of the chemokine MCP-1 (Figure 2A) in HF group than in the three other groups. Plasma interleukin IL-6 was also significantly higher in HF group than in HF-ω3PL group (Figure 2B) and tended to be higher in HF group than in HF-ω3TG mice (P = 0.06). Both n-3 diets even resulted in plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers similar to the LF diet. Among plasma markers involved in the transport of the pro-inflammatory endotoxins, the lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) level was higher in plasma of HF mice than in LF and HF-ω3PL groups (Figure 2C). However, no difference was found between HF and HF-ω3TG groups or between HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG groups. The plasma level of soluble cluster of differentiation 14 (sCD14), an endotoxin receptor, was also higher in HF mice than in the two HF groups supplemented with LC n-3 PUFA (Figure 2D). Regarding adipokines in plasma, results showed an increased leptin concentration in the HF group vs all other groups (Figure 2E). Supplementation with LC n-3 PUFA in both forms allowed recovering leptin concentrations similar to LF group. In contrast, there was no difference in plasma adiponectin concentration among the groups (Figure 2F).


n-3 PUFA added to high-fat diets affect differently adiposity and inflammation when carried by phospholipids or triacylglycerols in mice.

Awada M, Meynier A, Soulage CO, Hadji L, Géloën A, Viau M, Ribourg L, Benoit B, Debard C, Guichardant M, Lagarde M, Genot C, Michalski MC - Nutr Metab (Lond) (2013)

Inflammation and endotoxin metabolism parameters in plasma of mice fed different diets. (A) monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1; pg/ml); (B) Interleukin-6 (IL-6; μg/ml). (C) lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP; μg/ml). (D) (soluble cluster of differentiation 14 (sCD14; μg/ml). (E) leptin (ng/ml); (F) Adiponectin (μg/ml). Data are means ± SEM (n = 6-8). (*P < 0.05 vs HF); ($P < 0.05 vs LF). ANOVA followed by Fisher test.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3585798&req=5

Figure 2: Inflammation and endotoxin metabolism parameters in plasma of mice fed different diets. (A) monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1; pg/ml); (B) Interleukin-6 (IL-6; μg/ml). (C) lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP; μg/ml). (D) (soluble cluster of differentiation 14 (sCD14; μg/ml). (E) leptin (ng/ml); (F) Adiponectin (μg/ml). Data are means ± SEM (n = 6-8). (*P < 0.05 vs HF); ($P < 0.05 vs LF). ANOVA followed by Fisher test.
Mentions: High-fat diets are known to induce a metabolic inflammation related to (i) the concentrations of different types of adipokines and (ii) endotoxin transport. Regarding inflammation, we show higher concentrations in plasma of the chemokine MCP-1 (Figure 2A) in HF group than in the three other groups. Plasma interleukin IL-6 was also significantly higher in HF group than in HF-ω3PL group (Figure 2B) and tended to be higher in HF group than in HF-ω3TG mice (P = 0.06). Both n-3 diets even resulted in plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers similar to the LF diet. Among plasma markers involved in the transport of the pro-inflammatory endotoxins, the lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) level was higher in plasma of HF mice than in LF and HF-ω3PL groups (Figure 2C). However, no difference was found between HF and HF-ω3TG groups or between HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG groups. The plasma level of soluble cluster of differentiation 14 (sCD14), an endotoxin receptor, was also higher in HF mice than in the two HF groups supplemented with LC n-3 PUFA (Figure 2D). Regarding adipokines in plasma, results showed an increased leptin concentration in the HF group vs all other groups (Figure 2E). Supplementation with LC n-3 PUFA in both forms allowed recovering leptin concentrations similar to LF group. In contrast, there was no difference in plasma adiponectin concentration among the groups (Figure 2F).

Bottom Line: The type of n-3 PUFA carrier affected other outcomes.The phospholipid form of n-3 PUFA increased the level of tocopherols in epididymal adipose tissue compared with HF-ω3TG and resulted in smaller adipocytes than the two others HF groups.Altogether, these results would support the development functional foods containing LC n-3 PUFA in the form of PL in order to prevent some deleterious outcomes associated with the development of obesity.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: INRA, U1362, CarMeN, Villeurbanne, F-69621, France. marie-caroline.michalski@insa-lyon.fr.

ABSTRACT

Background: Dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is primarily recognized to protect against cardiovascular diseases, cognitive dysfunctions and the onset of obesity and associated metabolic disorders. However, some of their properties such as bioavailability can depend on their chemical carriers. The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that the nature of n-3 PUFA carrier results in different metabolic effects related to adiposity, oxidative stress and inflammation.

Methods: 4 groups of C57BL/6 mice were fed for 8 weeks low fat (LF) diet or high-fat (HF, 20%) diets. Two groups of high-fat diets were supplemented with long-chain n-3 PUFA either incorporated in the form of phospholipids (HF-ω3PL) or triacylglycerols (HF-ω3TG).

Results: Both HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG diets reduced the plasma concentrations of (i) inflammatory markers such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), (ii) leptin and (iii) 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), a marker of n-6 PUFA-derived oxidative stress compared with the control HF diet. Moreover, in both HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG groups, MCP-1 and IL-6 gene expressions were decreased in epididymal adipose tissue and the mRNA level of gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase GPx2, an antioxidant enzyme, was decreased in the jejunum compared with the control HF diet. The type of n-3 PUFA carrier affected other outcomes. The phospholipid form of n-3 PUFA increased the level of tocopherols in epididymal adipose tissue compared with HF-ω3TG and resulted in smaller adipocytes than the two others HF groups. Adipocytes in the HF-ω3PL and LF groups were similar in size distribution.

Conclusion: Supplementation of mice diet with long-chain n-3 PUFA during long-term consumption of high-fat diets had the same lowering effects on inflammation regardless of triacyglycerol or phospholipid carrier, whereas the location of these fatty acids on a PL carrier had a major effect on decreasing the size of adipocytes that was not observed with the triacyglycerol carrier. Altogether, these results would support the development functional foods containing LC n-3 PUFA in the form of PL in order to prevent some deleterious outcomes associated with the development of obesity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus