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n-3 PUFA added to high-fat diets affect differently adiposity and inflammation when carried by phospholipids or triacylglycerols in mice.

Awada M, Meynier A, Soulage CO, Hadji L, Géloën A, Viau M, Ribourg L, Benoit B, Debard C, Guichardant M, Lagarde M, Genot C, Michalski MC - Nutr Metab (Lond) (2013)

Bottom Line: The type of n-3 PUFA carrier affected other outcomes.The phospholipid form of n-3 PUFA increased the level of tocopherols in epididymal adipose tissue compared with HF-ω3TG and resulted in smaller adipocytes than the two others HF groups.Altogether, these results would support the development functional foods containing LC n-3 PUFA in the form of PL in order to prevent some deleterious outcomes associated with the development of obesity.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: INRA, U1362, CarMeN, Villeurbanne, F-69621, France. marie-caroline.michalski@insa-lyon.fr.

ABSTRACT

Background: Dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is primarily recognized to protect against cardiovascular diseases, cognitive dysfunctions and the onset of obesity and associated metabolic disorders. However, some of their properties such as bioavailability can depend on their chemical carriers. The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that the nature of n-3 PUFA carrier results in different metabolic effects related to adiposity, oxidative stress and inflammation.

Methods: 4 groups of C57BL/6 mice were fed for 8 weeks low fat (LF) diet or high-fat (HF, 20%) diets. Two groups of high-fat diets were supplemented with long-chain n-3 PUFA either incorporated in the form of phospholipids (HF-ω3PL) or triacylglycerols (HF-ω3TG).

Results: Both HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG diets reduced the plasma concentrations of (i) inflammatory markers such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), (ii) leptin and (iii) 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), a marker of n-6 PUFA-derived oxidative stress compared with the control HF diet. Moreover, in both HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG groups, MCP-1 and IL-6 gene expressions were decreased in epididymal adipose tissue and the mRNA level of gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase GPx2, an antioxidant enzyme, was decreased in the jejunum compared with the control HF diet. The type of n-3 PUFA carrier affected other outcomes. The phospholipid form of n-3 PUFA increased the level of tocopherols in epididymal adipose tissue compared with HF-ω3TG and resulted in smaller adipocytes than the two others HF groups. Adipocytes in the HF-ω3PL and LF groups were similar in size distribution.

Conclusion: Supplementation of mice diet with long-chain n-3 PUFA during long-term consumption of high-fat diets had the same lowering effects on inflammation regardless of triacyglycerol or phospholipid carrier, whereas the location of these fatty acids on a PL carrier had a major effect on decreasing the size of adipocytes that was not observed with the triacyglycerol carrier. Altogether, these results would support the development functional foods containing LC n-3 PUFA in the form of PL in order to prevent some deleterious outcomes associated with the development of obesity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Relative n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio in diets, plasma, Liver and WAT. The mice were fed LF, HF, HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG diets. The values were expressed as percentage of the ratio measured in the groups. Data are means ± SEM (n = 3-6).
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Figure 1: Relative n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio in diets, plasma, Liver and WAT. The mice were fed LF, HF, HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG diets. The values were expressed as percentage of the ratio measured in the groups. Data are means ± SEM (n = 3-6).

Mentions: In liver like in eWAT, DHA and EPA levels were significantly increased in both HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG groups compared to LF and HF groups. A significant difference of LC n-3 PUFA levels was observed between HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG groups (See Additional file 2), as observed in the plasma. The n-6/n-3 ratio, related to a risk of inflammation derived from PUFA metabolites, was higher in mice fed HF diet than the three other groups. This ratio was not different between HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG groups (Table 4 and Additional file 2). The relative difference of n-6/n-3 ratio that existed between the high-fat diets and the LF diet was altogether still observed in plasma and tissues after 8 weeks of diet (Figure 1). Altogether, both diets enriched in LC n-3 PUFA resulted in proper accretion of these FA in tissues.


n-3 PUFA added to high-fat diets affect differently adiposity and inflammation when carried by phospholipids or triacylglycerols in mice.

Awada M, Meynier A, Soulage CO, Hadji L, Géloën A, Viau M, Ribourg L, Benoit B, Debard C, Guichardant M, Lagarde M, Genot C, Michalski MC - Nutr Metab (Lond) (2013)

Relative n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio in diets, plasma, Liver and WAT. The mice were fed LF, HF, HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG diets. The values were expressed as percentage of the ratio measured in the groups. Data are means ± SEM (n = 3-6).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3585798&req=5

Figure 1: Relative n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio in diets, plasma, Liver and WAT. The mice were fed LF, HF, HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG diets. The values were expressed as percentage of the ratio measured in the groups. Data are means ± SEM (n = 3-6).
Mentions: In liver like in eWAT, DHA and EPA levels were significantly increased in both HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG groups compared to LF and HF groups. A significant difference of LC n-3 PUFA levels was observed between HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG groups (See Additional file 2), as observed in the plasma. The n-6/n-3 ratio, related to a risk of inflammation derived from PUFA metabolites, was higher in mice fed HF diet than the three other groups. This ratio was not different between HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG groups (Table 4 and Additional file 2). The relative difference of n-6/n-3 ratio that existed between the high-fat diets and the LF diet was altogether still observed in plasma and tissues after 8 weeks of diet (Figure 1). Altogether, both diets enriched in LC n-3 PUFA resulted in proper accretion of these FA in tissues.

Bottom Line: The type of n-3 PUFA carrier affected other outcomes.The phospholipid form of n-3 PUFA increased the level of tocopherols in epididymal adipose tissue compared with HF-ω3TG and resulted in smaller adipocytes than the two others HF groups.Altogether, these results would support the development functional foods containing LC n-3 PUFA in the form of PL in order to prevent some deleterious outcomes associated with the development of obesity.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: INRA, U1362, CarMeN, Villeurbanne, F-69621, France. marie-caroline.michalski@insa-lyon.fr.

ABSTRACT

Background: Dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is primarily recognized to protect against cardiovascular diseases, cognitive dysfunctions and the onset of obesity and associated metabolic disorders. However, some of their properties such as bioavailability can depend on their chemical carriers. The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that the nature of n-3 PUFA carrier results in different metabolic effects related to adiposity, oxidative stress and inflammation.

Methods: 4 groups of C57BL/6 mice were fed for 8 weeks low fat (LF) diet or high-fat (HF, 20%) diets. Two groups of high-fat diets were supplemented with long-chain n-3 PUFA either incorporated in the form of phospholipids (HF-ω3PL) or triacylglycerols (HF-ω3TG).

Results: Both HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG diets reduced the plasma concentrations of (i) inflammatory markers such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), (ii) leptin and (iii) 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), a marker of n-6 PUFA-derived oxidative stress compared with the control HF diet. Moreover, in both HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG groups, MCP-1 and IL-6 gene expressions were decreased in epididymal adipose tissue and the mRNA level of gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase GPx2, an antioxidant enzyme, was decreased in the jejunum compared with the control HF diet. The type of n-3 PUFA carrier affected other outcomes. The phospholipid form of n-3 PUFA increased the level of tocopherols in epididymal adipose tissue compared with HF-ω3TG and resulted in smaller adipocytes than the two others HF groups. Adipocytes in the HF-ω3PL and LF groups were similar in size distribution.

Conclusion: Supplementation of mice diet with long-chain n-3 PUFA during long-term consumption of high-fat diets had the same lowering effects on inflammation regardless of triacyglycerol or phospholipid carrier, whereas the location of these fatty acids on a PL carrier had a major effect on decreasing the size of adipocytes that was not observed with the triacyglycerol carrier. Altogether, these results would support the development functional foods containing LC n-3 PUFA in the form of PL in order to prevent some deleterious outcomes associated with the development of obesity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus