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The association between interpregnancy interval and birth weight: what is the role of maternal polyunsaturated fatty acid status?

Smits LJ, Elzenga HM, Gemke RJ, Hornstra G, van Eijsden M - BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (2013)

Bottom Line: We used linear and logistic regression to evaluate the associations between fatty acid status, interpregnancy interval and pregnancy outcome.Short IPIs (< 6 months, with 18-23 months as a reference) were associated with a mean decrease of 207.6 g (SE: ± 73.1) in birth weight (p = 0.005) and a twofold increased risk of SGA (OR: 2.05; CI: 0.93-4.51; p = 0.074).Adjustment for maternal fatty acid concentrations did not affect these results to any meaningful extent.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, the Netherlands. luc.smits@epid.unimaas.nl

ABSTRACT

Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the mediating role of maternal early pregnancy plasma levels of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) in the association of interpregnancy interval (IPI) with birth weight and smallness for gestational age (SGA) at birth.

Methods: We analysed a subsample of the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) cohort, comprising 1,659 parous pregnant women recruited between January 2003 and March 2004. We used linear and logistic regression to evaluate the associations between fatty acid status, interpregnancy interval and pregnancy outcome.

Results: Low plasma phospholipids concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA), and high concentrations of arachidonic acid (AA) during early pregnancy were associated with reduced birth weight and/or an increased risk of SGA. Short IPIs (< 6 months, with 18-23 months as a reference) were associated with a mean decrease of 207.6 g (SE: ± 73.1) in birth weight (p = 0.005) and a twofold increased risk of SGA (OR: 2.05; CI: 0.93-4.51; p = 0.074). Adjustment for maternal fatty acid concentrations did not affect these results to any meaningful extent.

Conclusions: Despite the observed association of maternal early pregnancy LCPUFA status with birth weight and SGA, our study provides no evidence for the existence of an important role of maternal EPA, DHA, DGLA or AA in the association of short interpregnancy intervals with birth weight and SGA.

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Selection of the study sample.
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Figure 1: Selection of the study sample.

Mentions: Of the 12,373 pregnant women invited to participate, 8,266 returned the questionnaire (response rate, 67%). Of this group, 7,738 women gave birth to a single live infant about whom information on birth weight and pregnancy duration was available. For the present study, we excluded all primiparous women (n = 3,993) and women who delivered preterm (delivery before 37 complete weeks of gestation, n = 410). In addition, we excluded 1,656 women (49.9%) who did not participate in the biomarker study and therefore lacked data on fatty acid status, as well as 20 women for whom the interpregnancy interval was not known. Consequently, data about 1,659 women and their infants were available for analysis (see Figure 1).


The association between interpregnancy interval and birth weight: what is the role of maternal polyunsaturated fatty acid status?

Smits LJ, Elzenga HM, Gemke RJ, Hornstra G, van Eijsden M - BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (2013)

Selection of the study sample.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3585790&req=5

Figure 1: Selection of the study sample.
Mentions: Of the 12,373 pregnant women invited to participate, 8,266 returned the questionnaire (response rate, 67%). Of this group, 7,738 women gave birth to a single live infant about whom information on birth weight and pregnancy duration was available. For the present study, we excluded all primiparous women (n = 3,993) and women who delivered preterm (delivery before 37 complete weeks of gestation, n = 410). In addition, we excluded 1,656 women (49.9%) who did not participate in the biomarker study and therefore lacked data on fatty acid status, as well as 20 women for whom the interpregnancy interval was not known. Consequently, data about 1,659 women and their infants were available for analysis (see Figure 1).

Bottom Line: We used linear and logistic regression to evaluate the associations between fatty acid status, interpregnancy interval and pregnancy outcome.Short IPIs (< 6 months, with 18-23 months as a reference) were associated with a mean decrease of 207.6 g (SE: ± 73.1) in birth weight (p = 0.005) and a twofold increased risk of SGA (OR: 2.05; CI: 0.93-4.51; p = 0.074).Adjustment for maternal fatty acid concentrations did not affect these results to any meaningful extent.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, the Netherlands. luc.smits@epid.unimaas.nl

ABSTRACT

Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the mediating role of maternal early pregnancy plasma levels of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) in the association of interpregnancy interval (IPI) with birth weight and smallness for gestational age (SGA) at birth.

Methods: We analysed a subsample of the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) cohort, comprising 1,659 parous pregnant women recruited between January 2003 and March 2004. We used linear and logistic regression to evaluate the associations between fatty acid status, interpregnancy interval and pregnancy outcome.

Results: Low plasma phospholipids concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA), and high concentrations of arachidonic acid (AA) during early pregnancy were associated with reduced birth weight and/or an increased risk of SGA. Short IPIs (< 6 months, with 18-23 months as a reference) were associated with a mean decrease of 207.6 g (SE: ± 73.1) in birth weight (p = 0.005) and a twofold increased risk of SGA (OR: 2.05; CI: 0.93-4.51; p = 0.074). Adjustment for maternal fatty acid concentrations did not affect these results to any meaningful extent.

Conclusions: Despite the observed association of maternal early pregnancy LCPUFA status with birth weight and SGA, our study provides no evidence for the existence of an important role of maternal EPA, DHA, DGLA or AA in the association of short interpregnancy intervals with birth weight and SGA.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus